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Pflaum T.,Hans Dieter Belitz Institute for Cereal Grain Research | Konitzer K.,Hans Dieter Belitz Institute for Cereal Grain Research | Konitzer K.,TU Munich | Hofmann T.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

As a basis for sodium reduction, interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients and their impact on salt perception in bread crumb were examined. The theoretical sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins revealed that a maximum amount of 0.24% NaCl (based on flour) could be bound in bread crumb by ionic interactions between sodium ions and acidic amino acid side chains. However, the sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins, determined by a magnetic beads assay and a sodium-selective electrode, were only about 0.002% NaCl. They were negligible concerning the sensory perception of saltiness, as 0.075 and 0.3% NaCl were the lowest noticeable differences using bread containing 0 and 1% NaCl as a reference, respectively. Extracting bread crumb in a mastication simulator with ultrapure water, buffer solutions, and artificial and human saliva revealed that interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients were sufficiently weak to enable complete sodium extraction during simulated mastication. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Koehler P.,German Research Center for Food Chemistry | Koehler P.,Hans Dieter Belitz Institute for Cereal Grain Research | Kieffer R.,German Research Center for Food Chemistry | Wieser H.,German Research Center for Food Chemistry | Wieser H.,Hans Dieter Belitz Institute for Cereal Grain Research
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2010

Numerous gluten preparations were produced by the variation of pressure and temperature. Optimal conditions for the production of gluten films on a laboratory-scale were by suspending of gluten (1 g) in a mixture of ethanol (3 mL), glycerol (0.5 g) and conc. formic acid (10 mL), casting and drying at 40 °C. Small-scale laboratory methods for the production of gluten films by casting and moulding were developed. Film strips obtained were examined by micro-extension tests, which resulted in curves similar to extensigrams for dough and gluten and allowed the determination of the resistance to extension, extensibility and elasticity. The results demonstrated that pressure treatment of gluten in combination with variable cultivars, temperature, process parameters and additives, allow the production of films with a wide range of rheological properties - from soft and smooth to strong and hard rubber like. Finally, it was demonstrated that the addition of fibres to gluten enhanced the stability of films. Thus, high pressure treatment allows a selective modification of gluten as raw material for film production. In comparison with conventional plastic films, gluten films have considerable advantages, because they can be produced from renewable plants and they are readily biodegradable. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Junker Y.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Junker Y.,University of Kiel | Zeissig S.,University of Kiel | Kim S.-J.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2012

Ingestion of wheat, barley, or rye triggers small intestinal inflammation in patients with celiac disease. Specifically, the storage proteins of these cereals (gluten) elicit an adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 as major genetic predisposition. This well-defined role of adaptive immunity contrasts with an illdefined component of innate immunity in celiac disease. We identify the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) CM3 and 0.19, pestresistance molecules in wheat, as strong activators of innate immune responses in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ATIs engage the TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex and lead to up-regulation of maturation markers and elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients' biopsies. Mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR4 signaling are protected from intestinal and systemic immune responses upon oral challenge with ATIs. These findings define cereal ATIs as novel contributors to celiac disease. Moreover, ATIs may fuel inflammation and immunereactions in other intestinal and nonintestinal immune disorders. © 2012 Junker et al.

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