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Franklin, KY, United States

Rochell S.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Alexander L.S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Rocha G.C.,Federal University of Vicosa | Van Alstine W.G.,Purdue University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM) concentration on the growth performance and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four experimental treatments included a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 dietary SBM concentrations, 17.5% (LSBM) or 29% (HSBM), and 2 levels of PRRSV infection, uninfected sham or PRRSV infected. Sixtyfour weanling pigs of split sex (21 d of age, 7.14 ± 0.54 kg) were individually housed in disease containment chambers. Pigs were provided a common diet for 1 wk postweaning before being equalized for BW and sex and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 16 replicate pigs per group. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 1 wk before receiving either a sham inoculation (sterile PBS) or a 1 × 105 50% tissue culture infective dose of PRRSV at 35 d of age (0 d postinoculation, DPI). Pig BW and feed intake were recorded weekly, and rectal temperatures were measured daily beginning on 0 DPI. Blood was collected on 0, 3, 7, and 14 DPI for determination of serum PRRSV load, differential complete blood cell counts, and haptoglobin and cytokine concentrations. Infection with PRRSV increased (P < 0.01) rectal temperatures of pigs throughout the infection period, with no influence of dietary SBM concentration. Pigs in the PRRSVinfected group had lower (P < 0.01) ADFI and G:F from 0 to 14 DPI compared with uninfected pigs. In the PRRSV-infected group, pigs fed HSBM tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.06) compared with pigs fed LSBM, whereas there was no influence of SBM concentration on growth of pigs in the uninfected group. At 14 DPI, PRRSV-infected pigs fed HSBM had a lower serum PRRSV load (P < 0.05), a higher (P = 0.02) hematocrit value, and a tendency for greater hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed LSBM. Serum haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations of PRRSV-infected pigs were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HSBM at 3 and 14 DPI, respectively, than in pigs fed LSBM. Overall, increasing the dietary SBM concentration modulated the immune response and tended to improve the growth of nursery pigs during a PRRSV infection. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Rosero D.S.,North Carolina State University | van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University | Odle J.,North Carolina State University | Arellano C.,North Carolina State University | Boyd R.D.,Hanor Company
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to determine the response to increments of 2 sources of dietary fat on lactating sow and progeny performance during high ambient temperatures. Data were collected from 391 sows (PIC Camborough) from June to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Sows were randomly assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments and a control diet. Factors included 1) fat sources, animal-vegetable blend (A-V) and choice white grease (CWG), and 2) fat levels (2%, 4%, and 6%). The A-V blend contained 14.5% FFA with an iodine value of 89, peroxide value of 4.2 mEq/ kg, and anisidine value of 23, whereas CWG contained 3.7% FFA with an iodine value of 62, peroxide value of 9.8 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 5. Diets were cornsoybean meal based, with 8.0% distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings, and contained 3.56-g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal ME. Sows were balanced by parity, with 192 and 199 sows representing parity 1 and parity 3 to 5, respectively. Feed refusal increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the addition of supplemental fat, but feed and energy intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary fat. Sows fed CWG diets had reduced (linear, P < 0.05) BW loss during lactation. Litter growth rate was not affected by additional dietary fat. Addition of CWG to the diets improved G:F (sow and litter gain relative to feed intake) compared with the G:F of sows fed the control diet or the diets containing the A-V blend (0.50, 0.43, and 0.44, respectively; P < 0.05). Gain:ME (kg/ Mcal ME) was greater (P < 0.05) for CWG (0.146) than A-V blend (0.129) but was not different from that of the control diet (0.131). Addition of A-V blend and CWG both improved (P < 0.05) conception and farrowing rates and subsequent litter size compared with the control diet. In conclusion, energy intake increased with the addition of fat. The A-V blend contained a greater amount of aldehydes (quantifi ed by anisidine value) and was more susceptible to oxidation, resulting in reduced feed effi ciency than CWG. Subsequent litter size and reproductive performance was improved by inclusion of both sources of fat in diets fed to lactating sows. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Rosero D.S.,North Carolina State University | van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University | Odle J.,North Carolina State University | Cabrera R.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of supplemental dietary fat on total lactation energy intake and sow and litter performance during high ambient temperatures (27 ± 3°C). Data were collected from 337 mixed-parity sows from July to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based with 7.5% corn distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings and contained 3.24 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal of ME. Animal-vegetable fat blend (A-V) was supplemented at 0, 2, 4, or 6%. Sows were balanced by parity, with 113, 109, and 115 sows representing parity 1, 2, and 3 to 7 (P3+), respectively. Feed disappearance (subset of 190 sows; 4.08, 4.18, 4.44, and 4.34 kg/d, for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P < 0.05) and apparent caloric intake (12.83, 13.54, 14.78, and 14.89 Mcal of ME/d, respectively; P < 0.001) increased linearly with increasing dietary fat. Gain:feed (sow and litter BW gain relative to feed intake) was not affected (P = 0.56), but gain:Mcal ME declined linearly with the addition of A-V (0.16, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.14 for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P < 0.01). Parity 1 sows (3.95 kg/d) had less (P < 0.05) feed disappearance than P2 (4.48 kg/d) and P3+ (4.34 kg/d) sows. Body weight change in P1 sows was greater (P < 0.01) than either P2 or P3+ sows (-0.32 vs. -0.07 and 0.12 kg/d), whereas backfat loss was less (P < 0.05) and loin depth gain was greater (P < 0.05) in P3+ sows compared with P1 and P2 sows. Dietary A-V improved litter ADG (P < 0.05; 1.95, 2.13, 2.07, and 2.31 kg/d for 0, 2, 4, and 6% fat, respectively) only in P3+ sows. Sows bred within 8 d after weaning (58.3, 72.0, 70.2, and 74.7% for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively); conception rate (78.5, 89.5, 89.2, and 85.7%) and farrowing rate (71.4, 81.4, 85.5, and 78.6%) were improved (P < 0.01) by additional A-V, but weaning-to-breeding interval was not affected. Rectal and skin temperature and respiration rate of sows were greater (P < 0.002) when measured at wk 3 compared with wk 1 of lactation, but were not affected by A-V addition. Parity 3+ sows had lower (P < 0.05) rectal temperature than P1 and P2 sows, and respiration rate was reduced (P < 0.001) in P1 sows compared with P2 and P3+ sows. In conclusion, A-V improved feed disappearance and caloric intake, resulting in improved litter weight gain and subsequent reproductive performance of sows; however, feed and caloric efficiency were negatively affected. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science.

Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Einstein M.E.,Purdue University | Jungst S.,Purdue University | Matthews J.O.,Purdue University | And 6 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW∧0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of growth and G:F than MEI. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.4% greater ADG:Mcal MEI and 0.11% greater ADG:NEI above maintenance than pigs fed LE diets, again demonstrating that NEI is a better predictor of pig performance than MEI. Pigs fed LE diets had similar daily NEI and MEI but grew slower and less efficiently on both ME and NE basis than pigs fed HE diets. The data suggest that the midds NE value (2.132 Mcal/kg) was too high for this source or that maintenance was increased for pigs fed LE diets.

Eisemann J.H.,North Carolina State University | Lewis H.E.,North Carolina State University | Broome A.I.,North Carolina State University | Sullivan K.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to define the lysine requirement of neonatal pigs fed a liquid diet up to 5.5 kg bodyweight (BW). Neonatal pigs, 1-2 days old, with an initial bodyweight of 1.63 ± 0.04 kg, were randomly allotted to 10 isocaloric diets varying in lysine concentration from 0.76 to 1.62 g lysine/MJ gross energy (GE). Diets were formulated using whey protein concentrate and casein as protein sources and contained similar balance of indispensable amino acids. On day 1 of the experiment, pigs were fed 350 g liquid diet/kg metabolic bodyweight (BW0.75) according to the average BW of all pigs. On day 2, feeding rate was increased to 400 g/kg BW0.75. Increments were 100 g/kg BW0.75 per day for the subsequent 3 days until pigs reached 700 g/kg BW0.75 on day 5. Thereafter, feed was offered to pigs at a common feeding level of 700 g/kg BW0.75 each day until they reached 5.5 kg BW. Feed intake and BW were measured daily. Concentration of fat in the carcass decreased (P < 0.05) and the ratio of crude protein (CP) to fat in the carcass increased (P < 0.05) linearly as lysine inclusion increased. Both average daily gain and CP accretion increased (quadratic, P < 0.05), whereas fat accretion decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as lysine inclusion increased. Using the maximum point of the quadratic function, the estimated dietary lysine required for maximal growth (271 g/day) and CP accretion (45.2 g/day) was 1.41 and 1.32 g lysine/MJ GE, respectively. The dietary lysine required, estimating the requirement at the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for CP accretion of 42.9 g/day, was 1.12 g lysine/MJ GE. Gross efficiency of CP deposition (CP deposition/CP intake) achieved a maximum of 0.85 at 1.01 g lysine/MJ GE. © 2014 CSIRO.

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