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Fox G.J.,Woolcock Institute of Medical Research | Fox G.J.,Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology | Fox G.J.,University of Sydney | Nhung N.V.,National Lung Hospital | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Setting: Existing tuberculosis control strategies in Vietnam are based on symptomatic patients attending health services for investigation. This approach has not resulted in substantial reductions in the prevalence of tuberculosis disease, despite the National Tuberculosis Program achieving high treatment completion rates. Alternative approaches are being considered. Objective: To determine the feasibility and yield of contact investigation in households of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among household members of tuberculosis patients in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: Household contacts of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited at four urban and rural District Tuberculosis Units in Hanoi. Clinical and radiological screening was conducted at baseline, six months and 12 months. Sputum microscopy and culture was performed in contacts suspected of having tuberculosis. MIRU-VNTR molecular testing was used to compare the strains of patients and their contacts with disease. Results: Among 545 household contacts of 212 patients, four were diagnosed with tuberculosis at baseline (prevalence 734 cases per 100,000 persons, 95% CI 17-1451) and one was diagnosed with tuberculosis during the subsequent 12 months after initial screening (incidence 180 cases per 100,000 person-years, 95% CI 44-131). Two of these cases were culture positive for M. tuberculosis and both had identical or near-identical MIRU-VNTR strain types. Conclusion: Household contacts of patients with potentially infectious forms of tuberculosis have a high prevalence of disease. Household contact investigation is feasible in Vietnam. Further research is required to investigate its effectiveness. © 2012 Fox et al. Source


Hang N.T.L.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | Hang N.T.L.,National Center for Global Health | Maeda S.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis | Keicho N.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis | And 3 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2015

The influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lineages/sublineages on unfavorable tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of Beijing genotype sublineages and other factors contributing to treatment outcome. Patients newly diagnosed with sputum smear-positive and culture-positive TB in Hanoi, Vietnam, participated in the study. After receiving anti-TB treatment, they were intensively followed up for the next 16 months. MTB isolates collected before treatment were subjected to drug susceptibility testing, and further analyzed to determine MTB (sub) lineages and their clonal similarities. Of 430 patients, 17 had treatment failure and 30 had TB recurrence. Rifampicin resistance was associated with treatment failure {adjusted odds ratio = 6.64 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-29.73]}. The modern Beijing genotype was significantly associated with recurrent TB within 16 months [adjusted hazard ratio = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.17-9.27)], particularly after adjustment for the relevant antibiotic resistance. Human immunodeficiency virus coinfection and severity on chest radiographs were not significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Our findings provide further understanding of the influence of MTB strains on unfavorable treatment outcomes. Multiple risk factors should be considered for the optimal management of TB. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kobayashi K.,University of Tokyo | Yuliwulandari R.,University of Tokyo | Yuliwulandari R.,YARSI University | Yanai H.,University of Tokyo | And 6 more authors.
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2012

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many candidate genes have been investigated for a possible association with TB. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play important roles in human innate immune systems. Polymorphisms in and functions of TLRs have been investigated to identify associations with specific infectious diseases, including TB. Here, we examined whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs and genes in TLR signaling were associated with TB susceptibility in Indonesian and Vietnamese populations. A statistically significant association was observed between TB susceptibility in a classified Indonesian female group and rs352139, an SNP located in the intron of TLR9, using the genotype (P = 2.76E-04) and recessive (AA vs AG+GG, P = 2.48E-04, odds ratio = 1.827, 95% confidence interval = 1.321-2.526) models. Meta-analysis of the Indonesian and Vietnamese populations showed that rs352139 was significantly associated with TB in the recessive model. This finding indicated that a TLR9 polymorphism might have an important role in the susceptibility to M. tuberculosis in Asian populations. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Hang N.T.L.,Medical Collaboration Center | Maeda S.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis JATA | Thuong P.H.,Hanoi Lung Hospital | Van Hung N.,National Lung Hospital | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction:Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. Methods:Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6%) MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. Results:Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9%) were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7%) were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-4.35; 1.91, 1.18-3.10; and 1.69, 1.06-2.69, respectively). The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29-3.40). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07-14.14; 6.23, 2.34-16.58, respectively). Conclusion:Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment adherence would minimize further development of drug resistance strains. © 2013 Hang et al. Source


Le Hang N.T.,Medical Collaboration Center | Lien L.T.,Hanoi Lung Hospital | Kobayashi N.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Shimbo T.,International Clinical Research Center | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Imperfect sensitivity of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is a potential problem to detect tuberculosis. We made a thorough investigation of the factors that can lead to false negativity of IGRA. Methods: We recruited 543 patients with new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam. At diagnosis, peripheral blood was collected and IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube) was performed. Clinical and epidemiological information of the host and pathogen was collected. The test sensitivity was calculated and factors negatively influencing IGRA results were evaluated using a logistic regression model in 504 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: The overall sensitivity of IGRA was 92.3% (95% CI, 89.6%-94.4%). The proportions of IGRA-negative and -indeterminate results were 4.8% (95% CI, 3.1%-7.0%) and 3.0% (95% CI, 1.7%-4.9%). Age increased by year, body mass index <16.0, HIV co-infection and the increased number of HLA-DRB1*0701 allele that patients bear showed significant associations with IGRA negativity (OR = 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.07], 5.42 [1.48-19.79], 6.38 [1.78-22.92] and 5.09 [2.31-11.22], respectively). HIV co-infection and the same HLA allele were also associated with indeterminate results (OR = 99.59 [95% CI, 15.58-625.61] and 4.25 [1.27-14.16]). Conclusions: Aging, emaciation, HIV co-infection and HLA genotype affected IGRA results. Assessment of these factors might contribute to a better understanding of the assay. © 2011 Hang et al. Source

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