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Kim S.,Chonnam National University | Song Y.H.,Chonnam National University | Lee J.-Y.,Chonnam National University | Choi S.R.,Chungnam National University | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Inheritance of resistance to downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) was studied using inbred parental lines RS1 and SS1 that display strong resistance and severe susceptibility, respectively. F 1, F 2, and BC 1F 1 populations were evaluated for their responses to downy mildew infection. Resistance to downy mildew was conditioned by a single dominant locus designated BrRHP1. A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker linked to BrRHP1 was identified using bulked segregant analysis and two molecular markers designated BrPERK15A and BrPERK15B were developed. BrPERK15B was polymorphic between the parental lines used to construct the reference linkage map of B. rapa, allowing the mapping of the BrRHP1 locus to the A1 linkage group. Using bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequences anchored to the A1 linkage group, six simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers were developed for use in marker-assisted breeding of downy mildew resistance in Chinese cabbage. Four simple PCR markers flanking the BrRHP1 locus were shown to be collinear with the long-arm region of Arabidopsis chromosome 3. The two closely linked flanking markers delimit the BrRHP1 locus within a 2. 2-Mb interval of this Arabidopsis syntenic region. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Pang W.,Chungnam National University | Li X.,Chungnam National University | Choi S.R.,Chungnam National University | Dhandapani V.,Chungnam National University | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2015

Brassica rapa is an economically important crop with a wide range of morphologies. Developing a set of fixed lines and understanding their diversity has been challenging, but facilitates resource conservation. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 238 fixed lines of leafy B. rapa with 45 new simple sequence repeat markers and 109 new NGS (next-generation sequencing)-generated single nucleotide polymorphism markers evenly distributed throughout the B. rapa genome. Phylogenetic analysis classified the vegetable fixed lines into four subgroups, with the three oil types forming a separate and relatively distant cluster. A model-based population structure analysis identified four subpopulations corresponding to geographical origins and morphological traits, and revealed extensive allelic admixture. In particular, the Chinese cabbage cluster was subdivided into three groups and showed considerable correlation with leaf- and heading-related traits (leaf and heading shape). The vegetable B. rapa fixed lines successfully developed in our study could be valuable materials for establishing a multinational Brassica rapa diversity resource. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure could be useful for utilization of the representative genetic variation and further genomic analysis. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Bong Y.-S.,Korea Basic Science Institute | Song B.-Y.,Chungnam National University | Gautam M.K.,Korea Basic Science Institute | Jang C.-S.,Hankook Seed Co. | And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Combined chemical analysis of multiple elements and statistical analysis was performed to distinguish the geographic origin of 363 cabbage samples produced in Korea and China. Multielement analysis showed a significant difference in the contents of many elements of cabbages between Korea and China. The results of analysis revealed good distinction among individual geographic origins. The lithology of cabbage-producing areas was well reflected in the indicators of geographic origin. The present results demonstrate that the method of combining chemical and statistical analyses is very effective for determining the geographic origin of cabbage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bong Y.-S.,Korea Basic Science Institute | Bong Y.-S.,Chungnam National University | Shin W.-J.,Korea Basic Science Institute | Gautam M.K.,Korea Basic Science Institute | And 7 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kim J.,Seoul National University | Kang W.-H.,Seoul National University | Yang H.-B.,Seoul National University | Park S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Two Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) lines resistant to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) CHN5 were identified and found to have broad-spectrum resistance against three other TuMV strains (CHN2, 3, and 4). Genetic analysis indicated that this TuMV resistance is recessive, and a candidate gene approach was used to identify the resistance gene, which we named trs (TuMV resistance discovered at Seoul National University). Based on previous research in Arabidopsis showing that mutations in eIF(iso)4E determine TuMV resistance, the eIF(iso)4E gene was selected as a candidate for the trs gene in Brassica rapa. Three copies of eIF(iso)4E, Braiso4Ea, Braiso4Eb, and Braiso4Ec, were amplified, and polymorphisms between resistant and susceptible lines were analyzed. Sequence polymorphisms were found in Braiso4Ea and Braiso4Eb; in contrast, no sequence differences were found in Braiso4Ec between resistant and susceptible lines. A CAPS marker developed to test the linkage between Braiso4Eb and TuMV resistance displayed no linkage. A SCAR marker, trsSCAR, developed using allele-specific deletions and SNPs in Braiso4Ea, did co-segregate perfectly with trs in three F 2 populations. However, the presence or absence of the Braiso4Ea sequence deletion was not consistent between resistant lines and susceptible lines, indicating that Braiso4Ea is not the actual resistance gene. Results from mapping analysis indicated that the trs is located at chromosome A04, between scaffold 000104 and scaffold 040552. This location demonstrated that trs may be another recessive resistance gene tightly linked to retr02 or another allele. The molecular markers developed in this study will be useful for breeding durable resistance. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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