Helsinki, Finland
Helsinki, Finland

The Hanken School of Economics is a Finnish business school located in Helsinki and Vasa, Finland. The school was founded in 1909 under the name Högre Svenska Handelsläroverket and was given its current name in 1927. Hanken has two campuses, one in Helsinki and one in Vaasa. Wikipedia.


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Hassan L.,Hanken School of Economics
Simulation and Gaming | Year: 2017

Background. Gamification is concerned with the utilization of motivational affordances that create value-adding experience in the design of services. It has many applications in different fields and has been shown to be a good design methodology to influence motivation and behavioral change. Civic engagement and its online platforms could benefit from gamification, as these areas suffer from low engagement levels, thus defeating the purpose for which they are created. Purpose. There is a lack of understanding of how civic engagement platforms should be gamified to sustain active engagement and assist in community building, while also fulfilling their operational objectives. This article aims to provide a theoretical framework and guidelines for the gamification of civic engagement platforms. Contribution. A theoretical framework for the gamification of civic engagement platforms is presented, drawing upon self-determination theory and democratic deliberation theory. Through this work, we also identify future research directions and highlight the need for research on related subjects. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


Velcu O.,Hanken School of Economics
Information and Management | Year: 2010

We applied the notion of strategic alignment to ERP system implementation and used a balanced scorecard approach to analyze business performance. The PLS analysis showed a positive association between realized strategic alignment, shorter and more cost efficient ERP projects, faster reaction times to business events, and the benefits of ERP systems. While each stage of ERP implementation has its inherent intricacies, we concluded that there was a substantial interdependency between the stages of ERP implementation and the success factors in one stage influencing the success of another. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hoglund H.,Hanken School of Economics
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

A number of different models have been suggested for detecting earnings management but the linear regression-based model presented by Jones (1991) is the most frequently used. The underlying assumption with the Jones model is that earnings are managed through accounting accruals. Typically, the companies for which earnings management is studied are grouped based on their industries. It is thus assumed that the accrual generating process for companies within a specific industry is similar. However, some studies have recently shown that this assumption does not necessarily hold. An alternative approach which returns a grouping which is, if not optimal, at least very close to optimal is the use of genetic algorithms. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of the cross-sectional Jones accrual model when the data set firms are grouped using a grouping genetic algorithm. The results provide strong evidence that the grouping genetic algorithm method outperforms the various alternative grouping methods. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Laakso M.,Hanken School of Economics | Bjork B.-C.,Hanken School of Economics
BMC Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies.Methods: Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection.Results: An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal publishers, most articles immediately (12%) but some within 12 months of publication (5%).Conclusions: OA journal publishing is disrupting the dominant subscription-based model of scientific publishing, having rapidly grown in relative annual share of published journal articles during the last decade. © 2012 Laakso and Björk; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Bjork B.-C.,Hanken School of Economics
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Since 2004, mainstream scholarly publishers have been offering authors publishing in their subscription journals the option to free their individual articles from access barriers against a payment (hybrid OA). This has been marketed as a possible gradual transition path between subscription and open access to the scholarly journal literature, and the publishers have pledged to decrease their subscription prices in proportion to the uptake of the hybrid option. The number of hybrid journals has doubled in the past couple of years and is now over 4,300; the number of such articles was around 12,000 in 2011. On average only 1-2% of eligible authors utilize the OA option, due mainly to the generally high price level of typically 3,000 USD. There are, however, a few publishers and individual journals with a much higher uptake. This article takes a closer look at the development of hybrid OA and discusses, from an author-centric viewpoint, the possible reasons for the lack of success of this business model. © 2012 ASIS&T.


Holttinen H.,Hanken School of Economics
Consumption Markets and Culture | Year: 2014

This study examines how consumers enact cultural ideals in mundane consumption. The empirical context is a weekday dinner practice among Finnish households. The findings demonstrate how practices inform consumers how, where, when, and with whom to enact and compromise cultural ideals and identity projects. Thus the practices guide food consumption choices and the meanings that the consumers ascribe to food consumption objects. The consumers are pragmatic, flexible and fragmented as they enact identity projects and cultural ideals in mundane consumption in relation to practices. They compromise the identity projects and the cultural ideals in some practice(s) but not across practices. As the practices serve different ends for the consumers at different times, the meaning of the practices is constantly re-created by the consumers. The perceived value of mundane consumption is related to how well and how frequently the consumers can enact their identity projects and cultural ideals in practices. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Bjork B.C.,Hanken School of Economics
Journal of medical Internet research | Year: 2011

The emergence of the Internet has triggered tremendous changes in the publication of scientific peer-reviewed journals. Today, journals are usually available in parallel electronic versions, but the way the peer-review process works, the look of articles and journals, and the rigid and slow publication schedules have remained largely unchanged, at least for the vast majority of subscription-based journals. Those publishing firms and scholarly publishers who have chosen the more radical option of open access (OA), in which the content of journals is freely accessible to anybody with Internet connectivity, have had a much bigger degree of freedom to experiment with innovations. The objective was to study how open access journals have experimented with innovations concerning ways of organizing the peer review, the format of journals and articles, new interactive and media formats, and novel publishing revenue models. The features of 24 open access journals were studied. The journals were chosen in a nonrandom manner from the approximately 7000 existing OA journals based on available information about interesting journals and include both representative cases and highly innovative outlier cases. Most early OA journals in the 1990s were founded by individual scholars and used a business model based on voluntary work close in spirit to open-source development of software. In the next wave, many long-established journals, in particular society journals and journals from regions such as Latin America, made their articles OA when they started publishing parallel electronic versions. From about 2002 on, newly founded professional OA publishing firms using article-processing charges to fund their operations have emerged. Over the years, there have been several experiments with new forms of peer review, media enhancements, and the inclusion of structured data sets with articles. In recent years, the growth of OA publishing has also been facilitated by the availability of open-source software for journal publishing. The case studies illustrate how a new technology and a business model enabled by new technology can be harnessed to find new innovative ways for the organization and content of scholarly publishing. Several recent launches of OA journals by major subscription publishers demonstrate that OA is rapidly gaining acceptance as a sustainable alternative to subscription-based scholarly publishing.


The degree to which scholarly journal articles published in subscription-based journals could be provided open access (OA) through publisher-permitted uploading to freely accessible web locations, so called green OA, is an underexplored area of research. This study combines article volume data originating from the Scopus bibliographic database with manually coded publisher policies of the 100 largest journal publishers measured by article output volume for the year 2010. Of the 1.1 million articles included in the analysis, 80.4 % could be uploaded either as an accepted manuscript or publisher version to an institutional or subject repository after one year of publication. Publishers were found to be substantially more permissive with allowing accepted manuscripts on personal webpages (78.1 % of articles) or in institutional repositories (79.9 %) compared to subject repositories (32.8 %). With previous studies suggesting realized green OA to be around 12 % of total annual articles the results highlight the substantial unused potential for green OA. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Hoglund H.,Hanken School of Economics
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2015

Most earnings management and earnings quality studies rely on various types of discretionary accrual estimation models. Common assumptions when using these models is that the accrual generating process (AGP) is stable over time or that firms within the same industry have similar AGPs. These assumptions have, however, been challenged in a number of studies. Instead, it has been suggested that AGP is depicted by various accrual determinants and that firms should be grouped according to similarities in the AGP. The purpose of this study is to develop and assess the performance of a self-organizing map (SOM) local regression-based discretionary accrual estimation model. Overall, the results show that the SOM local regression model outperforms previously suggested discretionary accrual estimation models. For example, the detection rate of simulated earnings management for the SOM local regression model is almost twice the detection rate of the commonly used cross-sectional Jones model. In addition to outperforming previously suggested models, the SOM local regression model also gives a visual representation of the AGP of a specific firm in relation to other firms. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shen C.,Hanken School of Economics | Bjork B.-C.,Hanken School of Economics
BMC Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: A negative consequence of the rapid growth of scholarly open access publishing funded by article processing charges is the emergence of publishers and journals with highly questionable marketing and peer review practices. These so-called predatory publishers are causing unfounded negative publicity for open access publishing in general. Reports about this branch of e-business have so far mainly concentrated on exposing lacking peer review and scandals involving publishers and journals. There is a lack of comprehensive studies about several aspects of this phenomenon, including extent and regional distribution. Methods: After an initial scan of all predatory publishers and journals included in the so-called Beall's list, a sample of 613 journals was constructed using a stratified sampling method from the total of over 11,000 journals identified. Information about the subject field, country of publisher, article processing charge and article volumes published between 2010 and 2014 were manually collected from the journal websites. For a subset of journals, individual articles were sampled in order to study the country affiliation of authors and the publication delays. Results: Over the studied period, predatory journals have rapidly increased their publication volumes from 53,000 in 2010 to an estimated 420,000 articles in 2014, published by around 8,000 active journals. Early on, publishers with more than 100 journals dominated the market, but since 2012 publishers in the 10-99 journal size category have captured the largest market share. The regional distribution of both the publisher's country and authorship is highly skewed, in particular Asia and Africa contributed three quarters of authors. Authors paid an average article processing charge of 178 USD per article for articles typically published within 2 to 3 months of submission. Conclusions: Despite a total number of journals and publishing volumes comparable to respectable (indexed by the Directory of Open Access Journals) open access journals, the problem of predatory open access seems highly contained to just a few countries, where the academic evaluation practices strongly favor international publication, but without further quality checks. © 2015 Shen and Björk.

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