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Li Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li Z.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | Wu W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen H.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

The thermal conductivity of emulsion-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (ESBR) composites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), zinc oxide (ZnO) and alumina (Al2O3) was predicted using the finite element method (FEM). Two-dimensional (2D) FEM models, which involved the effects of aspect ratio (AR), shape, orientation and thermal conductivity anisotropy (TCA) of the CNTs, and interfacial thermal resistance (ITR), were used to simulate the microstructure of CNT filled ESBR composites. Also, 2D and three-dimensional (3D) FEM models were developed to simulate the microstructure of Al 2O3 or ZnO filled ESBR composites. An increase in the thermal conductivity with increasing Al2O3 or ZnO loadings was predicted by the FEM. The orientation angle (OA) of the CNTs and the ITR strongly affect the thermal conductivity as predicted by the FEM. The TCA of the CNTs also has a prominent effect on the thermal conductivity when CNTs have a relatively small OA. At a given filler loading, the thermal conductivity increased with the increasing intrinsic thermal conductivity of the filler over a certain range for a particular shape of filler. The thermal conductivities predicted by the FEM were compared with those predicted by Agari's models and the experimental results. The trends of the thermal conductivity predicted by the FEM agreed with the experimental data. The thermal conductivity of the ESBR composites predicted by 2D and 3D spherical particle filler (SPF) FEM models as a function of ZnO and Al2O3 loading showed that the 3D SPF FEM model agreed well with the experimental results at low loadings (not higher than 20 phr), while the 2D SPF FEM model agreed well with the experimental results at high loadings (higher than 80 phr). In addition to being used for the analysis of existing composites, the proposed FEM models are useful for the design and optimization of new composite materials, and are expected to provide a more insightful understanding into the thermal conductivity of polymeric composites. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Li Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li Z.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | Chen H.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | Cai L.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2012

A finite element method was developed to predict the thermal conductivity of emulsion-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber composites filled with silicon carbide (SiC). Two-dimensional finite element method models, which involved the effects of aspect ratio, shape, particle size and mass ratio of silicon carbide, were used to simulate the microstructure of emulsion-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber composites. An increase in thermal conductivity of the composites with increasing aspect ratio values was predicted by the finite element method models. The shape and particle size of silicon carbide affected the thermal conductivity as predicted by the finite element method models. At silicon carbide loadings of 100 and 200phr, the thermal conductivity of the composites filled with two kinds of silicon carbide at mass ratio of 1:1 exhibited the highest thermal conductivity as predicted by rectangular particle filler finite element method models. Rectangular particle filler finite element method models (aspect ratio of 4 for SiC 1# and aspect ratio of 5 for SiC 2#) are better than other finite element method models for accurately predicting the thermal conductivity of silicon carbide/emulsion-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber composites. The thermal conductivities predicted by the rectangular particle filler finite element method models were compared with the experimental results. The trend and particular values of thermal conductivity predicted by the rectangular particle filler finite element method models agreed with the experimental data considerably. Compared with the experimental data, the biggest difference of predicted values is not more than 5%. The proposed finite element method models would provide theoretical foundations and practical methods for tailoring emulsion-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber composites with specific thermal conductivity. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Li Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li Z.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | Ren W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen H.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | And 2 more authors.
Polymer International | Year: 2012

The effect of liquid isoprene rubber (LIR) on the dynamic mechanical properties of emulsion-polymerized styrene/butadiene rubber (ESBR) vulcanizates was investigated by temperature sweep using dynamic mechanical analysis. The introduction of LIR led to ESBR vulcanizates having higher loss factor (tan δ) in the temperature range - 30 to 0 °C, and lower tan δ in the range 60 to 80 °C. A small amount of LIR-403 (LIR with carboxyl groups) led to a significant change in tan δ: the addition of LIR-403 (3 phr) led to a 7.5% increase in tan δ from - 30 to 0 °C, and a 24.9% decrease in tan δ from 60 to 80 °C. It was found that the introduction of LIR increased the bound rubber content in the ESBR compound. Equilibrium swelling experiments showed that the crosslink density of the vulcanizates increased after the introduction of LIR-403 or LIR-50 (general purpose LIR). The change in tan δ from 60 to 80 °C was related to polymer-filler interactions. The characteristic constant of filler-ESBR matrix interaction (m) was calculated. At a given filler volume fraction, the increase in m in the presence of LIR could be well related to the decrease in tan δ from 60 to 80 °C. The influence of LIR on filler network in the ESBR compound was also investigated by strain and temperature sweeps using a rubber processing analyzer. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Shi X.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Ma M.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Lian C.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Zhu D.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co.
Polymer Testing | Year: 2013

The effects of dynamic fatigue frequency, temperature and number of cycles on the adhesion of rubber to steel cord in a carcass recipe were examined. A new test method with special rubber/steel cord specimens was developed for the dynamic fatigue measurements which were carried out on a De Mattia Rubber Flexometer. It was found that the dynamic "pull-out forces" decreased with increase of fatigue frequency, but first increased and then decreased with increasing temperature and the number of fatigue cycles. The adhesion failure mainly occurred in the rubber phase rather than at the rubber/steel cord interface. The covered rubber on the "pulled-out" cord after fatigue appeared to form a screw thread and the greater pull-out force corresponded to more uniform and clearer screw threads in the rubber remaining on the cord. Steel cord with an outer wrapping wire had greater static adhesion force and better adhesion after fatigue; the adhesion failure mainly occurred in the rubber phase but some occurred at the contact point of the outer wrapping wire and the wrapped main steel wires. The screw threads of rubber coverage appeared along the twist direction of the outer wrapping wire. SEM indicated that un-dispersed filler agglomerates may initiate adhesion failure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shi X.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Ma M.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Lian C.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Zhu D.,Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

The effects of adhesion promoters, cobalt decanoate and PN759 (modified resorcinol) on the static and dynamic adhesion properties of rubber/steel cord in a carcass recipe are examined. A new testing method with special rubber/steel cord specimens was developed. It was found that cobalt decanoate could improve the static adhesion and favored the dynamic adhesion of rubber/steel cord so that adhesive failure mainly occurred in rubber phase. A resorcinol- formaldehyde-silica promoting system was deleterious to adhesion stability, but improved initial adhesion strength. PN759 improved the dynamic mechanical properties compared with resorcinol for the carcass vulcanizates at strains less than 10%. PN759 instead of resorcinol slightly improved the static and dynamic adhesion and the probability that adhesion failure occurred in the interphase was similar to that occurring in the rubber phase. The dynamic "pull-out forces" for samples with 1.0 phr cobalt decanoate first increased and then decreased with the increase in the number of fatigue cycles and reached a maximum at 100,000 fatigue cycles. The covered rubber on the "pulled-out" cord after fatigue appeared to form a screw thread form and the greater pull-out force corresponded to more uniform and narrower screw threads. SEM images indicated that un-dispersed filler agglomerates could be the initiating factor for adhesive failure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Trademark
ZHONGCE RUBBER GROUP COMPANY Ltd and Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | Date: 2011-06-29

Tires.


Trademark
ZHONGCE RUBBER GROUP COMPANY Ltd and Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | Date: 2010-02-23

Automobile tires.


Trademark
Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. | Date: 2012-12-20

Tires for vehicles; tyres and inner tubes for motorcycles; tires for electric cars; inner tubes for electric cars; tires for childrens bicycles; tires for bicycles and cycles; treads for retreading tyres; adhesive rubber patches for repairing tubes or tires; inner tubes for bicycles; inner tubes for cycles; inner tubes for automobile tires; repair kits for repairing vehicle inner tubes; casings for pneumatic tires; tire liners.

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