Hangzhou Qing chun Road Cross river Tunnel Company Ltd

Hangzhou, China

Hangzhou Qing chun Road Cross river Tunnel Company Ltd

Hangzhou, China

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Liang R.,Zhejiang University | Liang R.,Hubei Engineering University | Lin C.,Ningbo University | Lin C.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2017

Pit excavation changes the ground stress state which affects the existing metro tunnels. An analytical method considering the shearing effect of tunnels was proposed to assess the longitudinal responses of tunnels induced by the adjacent excavation. The tunnel was assumed as a Timoshenko beam resting on the Winkler foundation. A two-stage approach was used to analyze the longitudinal deformation of the tunnel due to excavation. Firstly, equilibrium differential equations considering the effect of tunnel shearing were established based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, additional unloading pressure on the existing tunnel due to excavation was calculated using Mindlin's elastic solution. Finally, the longitudinal deformation of the tunnel due to the unloading pressure was solved numerically using the finite difference method. The measured results from three well-documented published cases were selected to compare with the predicted results calculated with the proposed method as well as the Euler-Bernoulli beam method. Fairly good agreements are obtained between both two methods and the measurements. However, the Euler-Bernoulli method overestimates remarkably both the bending moment and shear force induced in the tunnel when compared to the results given by the proposed method. Because the proposed method is able to effectively model the shearing effect of the tunnel, the dislocation between the adjacent segmental linings subjected to the excavation can be further obtained by the proposed method. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.


Lin C.,Ningbo University | Wu S.,Hangzhou Qing chun Road Cross river Tunnel Company Ltd | Xia T.,Zhejiang University
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2015

Fluctuations of river stage are expected to induce changes in loads acting on the tunnel linings and cause readjustments of member forces in the segmental linings subsequently. Therefore, the evaluation of impacts of time-dependent river levels on the loads acting on the tunnel linings is of great importance in design of shield tunnel linings situated beneath the rivers. However, the loads acting the tunnel linings are generally considered as constant in most design methods available, taking no account of the influences of constantly changing river stage. In this study, the influences of river stage on design of shield tunnel linings are evaluated with respect to two common ground conditions: (a) impermeable overburden strata of low permeability and (b) permeable overburden strata of high permeability. Two earth pressure calculation models are correspondingly established. In addition, field observations in the Hangzhou Qiantang River Tunnel are described in detail to present the responses of tunnel linings to fluctuations in river stage and validate the established design model for the former case. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Lin C.-G.,Zhejiang University | Lin C.-G.,Ningbo University | Zhang Z.-M.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.-M.,Hangzhou Qing chun Road Cross river Tunnel Company Ltd | Yu F.,Zhejiang Sci-Tech University
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2013

Hangzhou Qiantang River Tunnel is the first cross-river tunnel under Qiantang River, and it is also the first practice of slurry shield tunnelling in the soft ground in Hangzhou. For lack of experience in slurry shield under-passing embankments in Hangzhou, ground surface movement monitoring and intensive analysis and comparisons of the measured results were executed to explore the key techniques to minimize the embankment settlements arising from tunnelling. This case study summarizes the primary factors influencing the embankment settlements and puts forward the key techniques and important issues for settlement control during slurry shield under-passing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lin C.,Zhejiang University | Zhang Z.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.,Hangzhou Qing Chun Road Cross River Tunnel Company Ltd
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

The Qing-chun Road Cross-river Tunnel is the first road tunnel under the Qiantang River in Hangzhou, and it is also the first experiences of slurry shield tunnelling in Hangzhou soft ground. In order to ensure the safety of construction and reduction of environmental impacts while shield tunnelling, a comprehensive monitoring system was carried out during construction, which included ground settlements, displacements and deformations of installed linings and so on. In this paper, the long-term ground settlements induced by slurry shield tunnelling were described in detail, and careful analysis of monitoring ground settlements was made. This case study shows that: 1. The surface transverse consolidation settlements do not follow the Gaussian curve; usually the largest settlements exist above the centerline of the tunnel or nearby, from where settlements descend outwards. Due to consolidation, the surface settlement troughs widen with time.2. Shield tunneling in soft ground, the turning point in settlement-time curves or settlement rate-time curves can be chosen as the time divides the immediate and long-term consolidation settlements. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.


Lin C.,Zhejiang University | Zhang Z.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.,Hangzhou Qingchun Road Cross river Tunnel Co. | Wu S.,Hangzhou Yunhe Tunnel Co. | And 2 more authors.
Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2011

Additional thrust at the excavation face, friction force imposed on the around soils by shield skin and excess pressure of tail grouting can cause ground surface movements. Based on Mindlin solution, ground surface displacements induced by these three forces are calculated through numerical integration. The calculation results are verified by case studies of in-situ monitored ground surface movements in construction of Hangzhou Qingchun road river-crossing tunnel. The analysis results indicate that superposition of ground loss settlement and calculated movements due to above three forces based on Mindlin solution can be used to predict ground surface heave and subsidence induced by shield tunnelling. Ground surface heave of cross-section caused by shield tail synchronous grouting accords with Gaussian distribution. A modified Peck equation taking grouting impact into account is proposed. Compared with the conversional Peck method, modified Peck equation is able to predict ground surface heave induced by shield tunnelling; and the fitting parameters of ground surface subsidence through back analysis are more accurate.


Wu S.,Hangzhou Qingchun Road Cross River Tunnel Company Ltd | Lin C.,Zhejiang University | Zhang Z.,Zhejiang University | Wang N.,Zhejiang University
Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2011

It is inevitable for the slurry shield to under-pass the embankment in construction of under-river tunnels in urban areas. For the safety of both the embankment structure and construction, resources of risks when slurry shield under-passing the embankment are analyzed in detail, and their causes, impacts and mitigation measures are also studied accordingly. The case history of risk control for slurry shield under-passing the embankment in Hangzhou Qingchun road cross-river tunnel in China confirmed the rationality and feasibility of the suggested risk control measures. Through optimization of slurry shield driving parameters, avoidance of adverse external conditions, in-time monitoring, and setting of detailed emergency countermeasures, some of the risks encountered during slurry shield under-passing the embankment can be reduced or mitigated so as to insure safety of the embankment and construction.


Lin C.-G.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.-M.,Hangzhou Qingchun Road Cross River Tunnel Company Ltd | Zhang Z.-M.,Zhejiang University | Liu J.-W.,Zhejiang University | Li Z.-L.,Hangzhou Qingchun Road Cross River Tunnel Company Ltd
Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics | Year: 2012

Shield tunnelling in soft soils inevitably disturbs the surrounding environment and induces ground surface settlements. The serviceability and safety of the structures in the vicinity can be jeopardized in case that excess settlements are observed. A comprehensive understanding of the influencing factors of shield tunnelling induced ground settlements and an accurate settlement prediction are of great importance for minimizing the environment impacts of shield tunnelling. Taking the load of the shield into account, the Mindlin's solution is introduced to calculate the additional stress in soils beneath the shield, and the layer-wise summation method is applied to calculate the final one-dimensional consolidation settlement. The duration of additional stress in soils relies on the shield advance rate and its halt time, and the corresponding consolidation settlement can be calculated using the Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory. Finally, the relationship between consolidation settlements and ground surface settlements is established by Peck equation. The theory is verified by in-situ monitored ground surface settlements in construction of Hangzhou Qing-chun Road cross-river tunnel in China. These studies show that the shield advance rate and machine halt duration have a significant impact on the ground surface settlements, and the increase in shield advance rate and decrease in machine halt duration favors the settlement control.


Lin C.,Zhejiang University | Zhang Z.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.,Hangzhou Qingchun Road Cross River Tunnel Co. | Fang K.,Zhejiang University
Tumu Gongcheng Xuebao/China Civil Engineering Journal | Year: 2012

Through analysis of shield driving parameters and ground settlements in the construction of the Qing-chun Road river-crossing tunnel, the influence of shield driving parameters on ground settlements induced by tunneling were studied. The studies show that: (1) Increasing the pressure of slurry and synchronized grouting appropriately can counterbalance some ground loss, so as to reduce the ground settlements. (2) The key to reducing shield tail ground loss is to fill the tail void immediately and effectively with synchronized grouting, but it should not be simply increasing the grouting volume. (3) With stabilization of the shield driving, higher advance rate leads to smaller ground settlements, whereas long time stop would lead to larger ground settlements. (4) Decreasing the torque of the cutter head while increasing the rotational speed can accelerate the shield driving and decrease the disturbance to surrounding soils and revolution of the shield. It can also decrease the size of the muck from working face, so as to avoid the blocking of the slurry pipelines. (5) Good control of the shield posture can decrease over-cut, friction and squeezing between the shield shell and the surrounding soils, so as to decrease the ground loss and consolidation. (6) The irregular ground heave movements caused the shape of transverse ground settlements deviate from Gaussian curve pattern.


Zhang Z.-M.,Zhejiang University | Lin C.-G.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.-M.,Hangzhou Qing Chun Road Cross River Tunnel Co. | Zou J.,Zhejiang University | Liu J.-W.,Zhejiang University
Zhejiang Daxue Xuebao (Gongxue Ban)/Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science) | Year: 2012

Extensive analysis of consolidation settlements induced by slurry shield tunnelling in construction of Hangzhou Qiantang River Tunnel was executed to explore their characteristics. A practical method to distinguish the consolidation settlements from immediate settlements was put forward. Formation mechanism, influencing factors, and control measures of consolidation settlements due to slurry shield tunnelling were summarized. This case study shows that: (1) Both immediate and settlement long-term ground surface settlement in the transverse direction can be fitted using Peck equation with great precision. (2) The transverse ground surface consolidation settlements usually do not conform to Gaussian curves. Maximum consolidation settlements develop at the ground surface above the tunnel centre or in the vicinity, from where they descend gradually with increasing distance. (3) Consolidation settlements contribute to widening the settlement trough width. (4) The time corresponding to the turning point in settlement-time curve or settlement rate-time curve is proposed to be chosen as boundary to divide the immediate and consolidation settlements. (5) Optimized control of slurry shield excavation parameters contributes to smaller disturbances to surrounding soils, consequently lowering consolidation settlements and their duration.


Zhang Z.-M.,Zhejiang University | Lin C.-G.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.-M.,Hangzhou Qing chun Road Cross river Tunnel Co. | Liu G.-S.,Hangzhou Qing chun Road Cross river Tunnel Co. | And 2 more authors.
Yantu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2011

Slurry shield has been widely used in construction of cross-river tunnels. One big challenge is how to traverse the embankment without impacting its regular service and safety. Based on the field settlement monitoring data in construction of Hangzhou Qingchun Road cross-river tunnel, ground settlements induced by shield tunneling under greenfield and the embankment are compared. The results show that the settlements of the embankment are larger, for which for the shielding disturbance to the surrounding soils, the complexity of the embankment structure, the vehicle travelling on the embankment and sustained rainfall are accounted. Peck equation's applicability to predict the ground settlements due to shield tunneling in Hangzhou is evaluated, and the values of the ground trough-width parameter and the volume loss in this project are suggested. By combining the successful experience of crossing the embankment in this tunnel, some practical and effective measures are suggested for slurry shield to traverse the embankment. These results will provide a scientific reference for the design and construction of similar shield tunnels in practice.

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