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Zhang M.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Tang F.-L.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Wu Z.-X.,Chunan Environmental Monitoring Station | Chen F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | And 3 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantitatively determined by HPLC in several surface sediment samples collected in December 2012 from Xin'anjiang Reservoir. The results showed that 15 of the 16 US EPA priority controlled PAHs were detected. Total concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments of the studied reservoir ranged from 258 to 906 ng/g dry weight (dw), with average 558 ng/g dw, lower pollution level. The distribution of PAHs is found to be influenced by riverine discharge and point-source pollution. The PAHs in the sediments were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. According to the ratio of feature components, the PAHs in surface sediment from the Xin'anjiang Reservoir originated largely from coal and biomass incomplete combustion in the surrounding areas and exhaustion of boats or cars. In addition, the ecological risk of surface sediment in Xin'anjiang Reservoir was assessed with the methods of sediment quality guidelines and sediment quality standards (SQSs), and the result indicated that there was no great biological impact associated with the PAHs in the surface sediment of Xin'anjiang Reservoir. However, the concentrations of some points have been exceeded the threshold effect level evaluated in accordance with SQSs. It is necessary to identify the contamination source and control the pollution input.


Tang F.-L.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Zhang M.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Xu J.-F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Ruan D.-D.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | And 3 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantitatively determined by GC in several surface water samples collected in July 2011 and November 2011 from Lake Qiandao (Xin'an River Reservoir) and its major input rivers. Then the component characteristics and source apportionment of HCHs and DDTs were confirmed, and the health risk assessment was evaluated. The results showed that 8 OCPs were found to be in trace amount, and p,p'-DDT, α-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the highest frequently detected OCPs. The concentrations of total OCPs in surface water of the studied Lake ranged from 1.9 to 7.6 ng·L-1, which were at lower pollution level, and 1.2-212 ng·L-1 in the samples from its three major input rivers. The spatial distribution of OCPs in the water of lake was varying, and Xin'an River, the mainstream of the lake, was the main input source of OCPs. Also, different contamination patterns among sampling seasons were found, the concentrations of OCPs in surface water collected in wet period were higher than those in dry season, which display the characteristics of nonpoint source pollution. According to the ratio of feature components, the OCPs in surface water from the Lake Qiandao originated largely from long distance transmission or degradation of technical HCHs, while additional sources of DDTs existed in the region. In addition, human health risk assessment of ingestion through the drinking water and skin contact absorption was performed using EPA recommends methods, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks caused by OCPs were 0.06×10-7-23.2×10-7 and 3.43×10-5-6.01×10-3, respectively. According to the acceptable risk level, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in water body of Lake Qiandao.


Chen F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Xu J.-F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Tang F.-L.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Zhang M.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Ruan D.-D.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Totally 77 kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in inlet/outlet wastewater of 10 typical enterprises in Hangzhou City were determined by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, then the discharge characteristics of VOCs were analyzed, and the monitoring results were evaluated. The results indicated that 22 kinds of VOCs were detected in inlet wastewater, the range of VOCs concentrations was 7-3.39×106 μg·L-1, while 14 kinds of VOCs were detected in outlet wastewater, the range of VOCs concentrations was 16-6.82×104 μg·L-1. The concentrations of VOCs in inlet/outlet wastewater of flavors and fragrances manufacturing enterprises were much higher than those of other industries. When using the third class discharge standard of "integrated wastewater discharge standard" (GB 8978-1996) as the evaluation criteria, the toluene concentration detected in outlet wastewater of enterprise 1 was 2.45×103 μg·L-1, which exceeded the standard limit. In addition. When the discharge multimedia environmental goals (DMEGWH) of VOCs in water was used as the evaluation criteria, the concentrations of n-butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone in outlet wastewater of enterprise 3 exceeded their respective discharge multimedia environmental goals.


Ye H.J.,Zhejiang University | Ye H.J.,Focused Photonics Hangzhou Inc. | Liao X.F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Guo S.L.,Focused Photonics Hangzhou Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This paper presents a continuous atmospheric heavy metals monitoring system (AMMS-100) for heavy metals analysis based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology. The AMMS-100 is used to collect the sample automatically with filters and then measure the concentrations of heavy metals by XRF. The accuracy of AMMS-100 for heavy metals analysis has been verified by the standard method. The relative errors, such as Pb and Fe, are lower than 10%. Moreover, the AMMS-100 can be used for long-term continuous monitoring the atmospheric heavy metals under different weather condition. The AMMS-100 described herein presents a continuous system for accurate analysis of atmospheric heavy metals with long-term stability. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang M.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Tang F.-L.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Yu Y.-Y.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Xu J.-F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | And 4 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2015

This study studied the pollution characteristics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Qiantang River in Hangzhou section (QR). Surface water samples, collected in July 2014 and January 2015 from 14 sites in QR were analyzed for 16 PFCs. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction with Oasis WAX cartridges and analyzed using the ultra performance liquid chromatography interfaced to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that 8 medium-and short-chain PFCs including C4 and C8 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and C4-C9 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in the surface waters. The total concentrations of PFCs ranged from 0.98 to 609 ng·L-1, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated, with range of 0.59-538 ng·L-1, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected at lower levels, ranging from 0 to 2.48 ng·L-1. The spatial distribution of PFCs varied, and the pollutant concentrations at the sampling sites located in upstream of the river such as Lanjiangkou and Jiangjunyan were relatively high, ∑PFCs concentration showed a decreasing trend from the upstream to the downstream. According to the ratio of feature components, PFCs in surface water of QR originated largely from the input of direct sewage emissions. Taken together, the PFCs pollution was highly correlated with the upstream of Qiantang River valley's industry distribution, and most of the mass load in the investigated river was attributed to upstream running water with a minor influence from the wastewater discharges along the river basin. Overall, the results presented here indicated that greater attention should be given to the contamination of PFCs, especially for PFOA in water body of QR. © 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Zhang M.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Tang F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Yu Y.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Chen F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2014

A high-throughput detection method has been developed for the determination of sixteen perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) in surface water by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The water samples were concentrated and purified through WAX solid phase extraction cartridges. The UPLC separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column utilizing a gradient elution program of methanol (containing 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate) and water (containing 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 0. 4 mL/min. The MS/MS detection was performed under negative electrospray ionization (ESI-) in multiple reaction monitoring (MEM) mode. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-100 μg/L or 1.0-100 μg/L with correlation coefficients from 0. 998 7 to 0. 999 9. The limits of detection (LODs) for the sixteen perfluorinated organic compounds were in the range of 0. 06-0. 46 ng/L. The recoveries ranged from 67. 6% to 103o/o with the relative standard deviations between 2. 949% and 12. 0%. This method was characterized by high sensitivity and precision, extensive range and high speed, and can be applied for the analysis of PFC contaminants in surface water.


Zhang M.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Tang F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Chen F.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Xu J.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Zhang L.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2012

A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nine microcystins (MCs) in surface water by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatogra-phy coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The samples were enriched and purified by an HLB solid phase extraction column. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC™ system with a BEH C18 column with the gradient elution of acidified acetonitrile and water (both containing 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid). The nine MCs were determined in the modes of electrospray positive ionization (ESI +) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Good linearities were observed in the ranges of 0. 1-50 μg/L for MC-RR and 0. 5-100 μg/L for the others with correlation coefficients over 0. 999 0 and the limits of detection for the nine MCs were in the range of 0. 1-0. 5 ng/L. The recoveries were in the range of 75. 8%-109% in the three spiked levels of 1. 0, 10 and 50 μg/L with the relative standard deviations of 0. 49%-10. 0%. The method is characterized by high sensitivity and precision, extensive analytical range and quick analytical rate. This method was used in the analysis of water samples from two reservoirs situated in Hangzhou, and the 3 and 8 microcystins were detected individually.


PubMed | Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography | Year: 2012

A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nine microcystins (MCs) in surface water by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The samples were enriched and purified by an HLB solid phase extraction column. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC system with a BEH C18 column with the gradient elution of acidified acetonitrile and water (both containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid). The nine MCs were determined in the modes of electrospray positive ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Good linearities were observed in the ranges of 0.1-50 microg/L for MC-RR and 0.5-100 microg/L for the others with correlation coefficients over 0. 999 0 and the limits of detection for the nine MCs were in the range of 0.1-0.5 ng/L. The recoveries were in the range of 75.8%-109% in the three spiked levels of 1.0, 10 and 50 microg/L with the relative standard deviations of 0.49%-10.0%. The method is characterized by high sensitivity and precision, extensive analytical range and quick analytical rate. This method was used in the analysis of water samples from two reservoirs situated in Hangzhou, and the 3 and 8 microcystins were detected individually.

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