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Zhang Y.-X.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | An J.-L.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Lin X.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center | Wang J.-X.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2017

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of the north suburb of Nanjing in December 2015 were determined by GC5000 online gas chromatography, and the main composition and characteristics of VOCs were analyzed by using the PMF receptor model sources of VOCs parsing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) human exposure analysis and evaluation method in the United States were used to evaluate Human health risk of benzene series. The results showed that there were 6 sources in the PMF mode. Natural gas leakage accounted for 32.05%, automobile exhaust accounted for 18.99%, solvent use 13.67%, industrial emissions 2 13.20%, gasoline volatile 11.72%, and industrial emissions 1 (chemical type) 10.36%. The high value areas of the emission source were in accordance with the location of pollution sources surrounding the observation point. The B/T ratio was 0.74, which was at a relatively high level.The noncarcinogenic risk hazard quotient value HQ at 06:00 reached the highest value. HQ risk values were within the safe range specified by EPA. HQ of each source was as follows: automobile exhaust emissions 20.67×10-2, solvent use 6.97×10-2, natural gas leakage 6.34×10-2. In the carcinogenic risk of benzene, automobile exhaust emissions was 4.11×10-6, and natural gas leakage was 1.09×10-6, both were higher than the EPA specified safety threshold. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.


Wang S.,Zhejiang University | Yu S.,Zhejiang University | Li P.,Zhejiang University | Wang L.,Zhejiang University | And 4 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2017

To obtain a comprehensive picture of characteristics and sources of haze pollution in Zhengzhou, we analyzed annual air pollutant (fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3)) observations at nine monitoring stations from March 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014. A case study on haze pollution was carried out using observations, metrological data, aerosol optical depth (AOD) values and Hybrid receptor models. Results of annual variations of air pollutants indicated that PM2.5 pollution in Zhengzhou was the most severe. Monthly variations revealed that all air pollutants except O3 showed peak values in December because of the increased local emissions during heating, while the lowest value found in August was probably because of the favorable dispersion conditions. The monthly variation patterns of O3 concentrations show the peak values in August due to higher temperature and stronger solar radiation. The diurnal variations showed that PM2.5 concentration variations were consistent with the traffic flow. The high values of PM2.5/PM10 and PM2.5/CO occurred in the afternoon probably due to the strong photochemical reactions. Results of the case study showed that relative humidity and wind speed were the main meteorological factors influencing PM2.5 concentrations. Back trajectories show that regional transport from the northeast and southeast of Zhengzhou (such as Puyang, Kaifeng, Zhoukou, and Xuchang in Henan province) also made a big contribution to the PM2.5 pollution in Zhengzhou. Our results demonstrated that the spatial-temporal distributions of PM2.5 in Zhengzhou were determined by complex factors such as primary emissions, secondary production, meteorological conditions and local/regional-transport. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.


Sun S.,Tongji University | Sun S.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

This paper analyzed the importance and necessity of building environmental inspection culture system, then system framework has been constructed by referencing that established in labor security supervision department and disciplinary department. Six cultures in the system are: philosophy culture, responsibility culture, organization culture, behavior culture, system culture and incorruptibility culture. By discussing content of each culture, several recommendations have been made including people-oriented philosophy culture abstraction, high-efficient responsibility culture highlight, distinctive organization culture improvement, internal and external behavior culture enhancement, orderly system culture and complete incorruptibility culture construction. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Sun S.,Tongji University | Sun S.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center | Kong W.,Hangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau | Luo R.,Hangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This study is focus on the performance Credit rating system of corporate environmental behavior in Hangzhou. By doing statistical summaries and comparison of rating results of corporate environmental behavior from 2007 to 2010, most firms covered in this rating system in Hangzhou were behaving good or ordinarily toward environment. Corporate covered in the rating system show ineffective performance on promoting their environmental behavior by analyzing their rating results during four years. Some correlation has been found when study the variation of rating results and the pollution issues happened in Hangzhou. A dynamic management of the rating results and environmental behavior label system are recommended for further study and development. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Sun S.,Tongji University | Sun S.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center | Zhang Q.,Zhejiang GongShang University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This document analyzed several key factors (legislation, sources and costs) that concern to current pesticide waste collection and disposal system in Hangzhou, China. Legislation about pesticide waste management in Hangzhou and some Chinese cities were absent while management of pesticide waste enhanced in national legislation. Both total amount of pesticide used in field and pesticide applied in each acre decreased around 6% from 2006 to 2009 in Hangzhou since ecological agriculture projects carried out. Then narrowed the investigation to the study of costs of pesticides collection and disposal system in Yuhang division, which was a pilot project and cost for handling one ton pesticide waste was 32.77 Chinese Yuan. Suggestions about sustainability of the collection and disposal system in Yuhang were given for future implement. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhou S.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Tang Q.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Jin M.,Hangzhou Dianzi University | Liu W.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The residues and enantiomeric fractions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in 11 mollusk species collected from the coastal areas along the Yangtze River Delta to evaluate the status, potential sources, and health risks of pollution in these areas. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes ranged from 6.22 to 398.19, 0.66-7.11, and 0.14-4.08ngg-1 based on wet weight, respectively; DDTs and HCHs have the highest values, globally. The DDTs increased and the HCHs decreased compared to historical data. Both the box-and-whisker plots and the one-way ANOVA tests indicated that the OCP levels varied little between sampling locations and organism species. The compositions of the DDTs and HCHs suggested a cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered technical products. The comparative EF values for the α-HCH between the sediments and mollusks, as well as the lack of any discernible difference in the relative proportions of HCH isomers among different species from the same sampling site implied that the HCH residues in the mollusks came directly from the surrounding environment. However, the biotransformation of DDTs in mollusks cannot be precluded. The assessments performed based on several available guidelines suggested that although no significant human health risks were associated with the dietary intake of OCPs, the concentrations of DDTs exceeded the maximum residual limits of China and many developed nations. Moreover, an increased lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to either DDTs or HCHs remains a possibility. Because non-racemic OCP residues are common in the mollusk samples, our results suggest a need to further explore the levels and toxicity of the chiral contaminants in mollusks and other foodstuff to develop the human risk assessment framework based on chiral signatures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun S.,Tongji University | Sun S.,Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center | Luo R.,Hangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau | Lv Q.,Hangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau
WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences | Year: 2014

This work gave basic information and background of the current situation about the treatment of rural domestic sewage in Hangzhou and analyzed supervision of the rural domestic sewage treatment facilities from three aspects: administration measures, responsibility assessment system, and building ecological towns and villages. The supervision system presently in Hangzhou was unsatisfied in the following aspects: guarantee fund system, information management system, method of supervision, and performance evaluation. There were several recommendations including setting up guarantee fund system; trying multimode of supervision such as property management of rural treatment facilities; establishing information management system, and giving performance evaluation of the facilities. © 2014 WIT Press.


Kong L.,Fudan University | Yang Y.,Fudan University | Zhang S.,Fudan University | Zhao X.,Fudan University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2014

Hourly measurements of water-soluble inorganic ionic species in ambient atmospheric particles were conducted at Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou sampling sites in China during the period of 2009-2011. The relation between sulfate and nitrate in particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was examined based on these measurements. Results showed that the mass fraction of sulfate was strongly negatively correlated with that of nitrate in atmospheric particles on most of the sampling days, especially when sulfate and nitrate made up the vast majority of the total soluble anions and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) made a small contribution to the total water-soluble ions, revealing that the formation mechanisms of sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere are highly correlated, and there exists a significant negative correlation trend between sulfate and nitrate mass fractions in the atmospheric particles. We found that local meteorological conditions presented opposite influences on the mass fractions of sulfate and nitrate. Further analysis indicated that the two mass fractions were modulated by the neutralizing level of atmospheric aerosols, and the negative correlation could be found in acidic atmospheric particles. Strong negative correlation was usually observed on clear days, hazy days, foggy days, and respirable particulate air pollution days, whereas poor negative correlation was often observed during cloud, rain, snow, dust storm, and suspended dust events. The results can help to better understand the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate and nitrate during air pollution episodes and to better explain field results of atmospheric chemistry concerning sulfate and nitrate. Key Points Field experiment provides direct evidence for correlation of sulfate and nitrate Linear dependence between sulfate and nitrate in atmospheric particles New insights into potential link between atmospheric sulfate to nitrate © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang University of Technology and Zhejiang University
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The residues and enantiomeric fractions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in 11 mollusk species collected from the coastal areas along the Yangtze River Delta to evaluate the status, potential sources, and health risks of pollution in these areas. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes ranged from 6.22 to 398.19, 0.66-7.11, and 0.14-4.08 ng g(-1) based on wet weight, respectively; DDTs and HCHs have the highest values, globally. The DDTs increased and the HCHs decreased compared to historical data. Both the box-and-whisker plots and the one-way ANOVA tests indicated that the OCP levels varied little between sampling locations and organism species. The compositions of the DDTs and HCHs suggested a cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered technical products. The comparative EF values for the -HCH between the sediments and mollusks, as well as the lack of any discernible difference in the relative proportions of HCH isomers among different species from the same sampling site implied that the HCH residues in the mollusks came directly from the surrounding environment. However, the biotransformation of DDTs in mollusks cannot be precluded. The assessments performed based on several available guidelines suggested that although no significant human health risks were associated with the dietary intake of OCPs, the concentrations of DDTs exceeded the maximum residual limits of China and many developed nations. Moreover, an increased lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to either DDTs or HCHs remains a possibility. Because non-racemic OCP residues are common in the mollusk samples, our results suggest a need to further explore the levels and toxicity of the chiral contaminants in mollusks and other foodstuff to develop the human risk assessment framework based on chiral signatures.


PubMed | Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center and Zhejiang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2015

The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important macromolecular components in microbial aggregates. The three EPS extraction methods - ultrasound + cation exchange resins (CER) + sulfide, ultrasound + formamide + NaOH, and ultrasound + heat - were investigated in the study, and the component differences of extracted EPS from the loose flocs and dense aerobic granules were compared using chemical analysis and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM). Results showed that the contents of EPS were extracted effectively by ultrasound + formamide + NaOH and ultrasound + heat methods, and the ultrasound + CER + sulfide method did not extract the polysaccharides (PS) or protein (PN) contents from the sludge samples. The 3D-EEM analysis indicated that the nature of peak B/D, peak C/E/F, and peak A/G were attributed to PN-like, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like fluorophores. All fluorophores can be detected from the EPS extracted through the ultrasound + heat method. Hopefully this will provide more information about the EPS interaction mechanism of microbial aggregates.

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