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Qian H.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Wang R.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Chen J.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Ding H.,Zhejiang University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Diclofop methyl (DM) is a chiral herbicide that is widely used as a racemic mixture. This study analyzed the enantioselective effects of R- and S-DM on rice at the physiological and molecular levels. DM exerts an enantioselective effect on rice growth, reactive oxygen substance (ROS) formation, and antioxidant gene expression, with R-DM acting as a more potent stressor than S-DM. An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence demonstrated that photosynthesis process was more strongly inhibited by R-DM than by S-DM. Microarray results showed that many metabolic pathways, including starch and sucrose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism, were affected by DM in an enantioselective manner. These results suggest that R-DM is more active to plant growth than S-DM and that this activity is induced not only by repression of fatty acid synthesis but also by R-DM affecting the transcription of genes in other metabolic pathways in an enantioselective manner. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Wu Y.,Zhejiang University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Chemical and Bio Processing Technology of Farm Produces | Zou L.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | Mao J.,Zhejiang University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Sulforaphane (SF) has received much attention because of its anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but it is quite unstable. Microencapsulation is one way to improve its stability. The aim of this work was to produce microcapsules containing sulforaphane using a spray drying technique. The effects of different wall materials, inlet air temperature and core to wall ratio on the SF stability, encapsulation efficiency, encapsulation yield, moisture content and SF content were determined. The results indicated that optimal encapsulation conditions for SF were: maltodextrin for the wall material, 170 C for the inlet air temperature and 1:20 for the core/wall ratio. Characterization study showed that the microcapsules had a regular spherical shape. The stability of SF in spray dried microcapsules was greatly enhanced compared with that of free SF. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Guo M.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Zhai Y.-F.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Lu J.-P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Chai L.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is sensitive to heat stress (HS). Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s) play a crucial role in protecting plant cells against HS and control varies characters in different plants. However, CaHsp70-1 gene was not well characterized in pepper. In this study, CaHsp70-1 was cloned from the pepper thermotolerant line R9, which encoded a protein of 652 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 71.54 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.20. CaHsp70-1 belongs to the cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, and best matched with tomato SlHsp70. CaHsp70-1 was highly induced in root, stem, leaf and flower in R9 with HS treatment (40 °C for 2 h). In both thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9, CaHsp70-1 significantly increased after 0.5 h of HS (40 °C), and maintained in a higher level after 4 h HS. The expression of CaHsp70-1 induced by CaCl2, H2O2 and putrescine (Put) under HS were difference between B6 and R9 lines. The different expression patterns may be related to the differences in promoters of CaHsp70-1 from the two lines. These results suggest that CaHsp70-1 as a member of cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, may be involved in HS defense response via a signal transduction pathway contained Ca2+, H2O2 and Put. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Liu H.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Huang R.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Xie F.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Zhang S.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Shi J.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Rac-metolachlor, a widely used chloracetanilide herbicide, is now being replaced by S-metolachlor in many countries. The enantioselective effects of rac- and S-metolachlor on root growth of maize and rice was studied in hydroponics. Visible morphological changes in root growth were observed after treatment with rac- or S-metolachlor. The main root and lateral roots were shorter in length, and the number of lateral roots was reduced. The half inhibition (IC 50,5d) values for root length of rac- and S-metolachlor were 18.86 and 10.61μM, respectively, for maize, and 7.33 and 5.35μM, respectively, for rice. The root system activity after treatment with rac- or S-metolachlor was lower than that of the control, while the root membrane permeability was higher. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase in the roots were lower after rac- or S-metolachlor treatment compared to those of the control, while the malondialdehyde content was higher. After rice was treated with 3.1μM rac- or S-metolachlor, the cell wall separated from the cell membrane, and some destruction of nuclei and organelles was observed. The entire cell was destroyed after treatment with 12.4μM rac- or S-metolachlor. The results showed that S-metolachlor has stronger effects than rac-metolachlor on crop roots. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Kang X.,Zhejiang University of Science and Technology | Xia Y.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science
WIT Transactions on Information and Communication Technologies | Year: 2014

After investigating the architecture and requirements of the A garden project company, we designed and developed the garden project appraisal and supervision platform based on J2EE. This paper describes the framework of rewards management system and rewards process system based on design patterns such as session facade, business delegate, data access object, value object, and front controller. It is a reasonable, safe, and reliable expanding platform. © 2014 WIT Press. Source

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