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Liu H.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Huang R.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Xie F.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Zhang S.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Shi J.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Rac-metolachlor, a widely used chloracetanilide herbicide, is now being replaced by S-metolachlor in many countries. The enantioselective effects of rac- and S-metolachlor on root growth of maize and rice was studied in hydroponics. Visible morphological changes in root growth were observed after treatment with rac- or S-metolachlor. The main root and lateral roots were shorter in length, and the number of lateral roots was reduced. The half inhibition (IC 50,5d) values for root length of rac- and S-metolachlor were 18.86 and 10.61μM, respectively, for maize, and 7.33 and 5.35μM, respectively, for rice. The root system activity after treatment with rac- or S-metolachlor was lower than that of the control, while the root membrane permeability was higher. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase in the roots were lower after rac- or S-metolachlor treatment compared to those of the control, while the malondialdehyde content was higher. After rice was treated with 3.1μM rac- or S-metolachlor, the cell wall separated from the cell membrane, and some destruction of nuclei and organelles was observed. The entire cell was destroyed after treatment with 12.4μM rac- or S-metolachlor. The results showed that S-metolachlor has stronger effects than rac-metolachlor on crop roots. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Wu Y.,Zhejiang University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Chemical and Bio Processing Technology of Farm Produces | Zou L.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | Mao J.,Zhejiang University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Sulforaphane (SF) has received much attention because of its anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but it is quite unstable. Microencapsulation is one way to improve its stability. The aim of this work was to produce microcapsules containing sulforaphane using a spray drying technique. The effects of different wall materials, inlet air temperature and core to wall ratio on the SF stability, encapsulation efficiency, encapsulation yield, moisture content and SF content were determined. The results indicated that optimal encapsulation conditions for SF were: maltodextrin for the wall material, 170 C for the inlet air temperature and 1:20 for the core/wall ratio. Characterization study showed that the microcapsules had a regular spherical shape. The stability of SF in spray dried microcapsules was greatly enhanced compared with that of free SF. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kang X.,Zhejiang University of Science and Technology | Xia Y.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science
WIT Transactions on Information and Communication Technologies | Year: 2014

After investigating the architecture and requirements of the A garden project company, we designed and developed the garden project appraisal and supervision platform based on J2EE. This paper describes the framework of rewards management system and rewards process system based on design patterns such as session facade, business delegate, data access object, value object, and front controller. It is a reasonable, safe, and reliable expanding platform. © 2014 WIT Press.


Fang X.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | Ma H.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | Lu D.,Zhejiang Chinese Medical University | Yu H.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Proteome Science | Year: 2011

Background: Strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) reproduce asexually through stolons, which have strong tendencies to form adventitious roots at their second node. Understanding how the development of the proximal (I-1) and distal (I-2) internodes of stolons differ should facilitate nursery cultivation of strawberries.Results: Herein, we compared the proteomic profiles of the strawberry stolon I-1 and I-2 internodes. Proteins extracted from the internodes were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and 164 I-1 protein spots and 200 I-2 protein spots were examined further. Using mass spectrometry and database searches, 38 I-1 and 52 I-2 proteins were identified and categorized (8 and 10 groups, respectively) according to their cellular compartmentalization and functionality. Many of the identified proteins are enzymes necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis. Furthermore, identification of proteins that interact revealed that many of the I-2 proteins form a dynamic network during development. Finally, given our results, we present a mechanistic scheme for adventitious root formation of new clonal plants at the second node.Conclusions: Comparative proteomic analysis of I-1 and I-2 proteins revealed that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and sugar-hormone pathways might be important during adventitious root formation at the second node of new clonal plants. © 2011 Fang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Guo X.,Fair Friend Institute of Electromechanics | Chen W.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

In order to reduce the cost by multimedia signal sampling, processing, transmission of computing, storage, electricity, bandwidth resources in an environment-monitoring system built on a wireless sensor networks, this paper analyzed the limitations of the existing signal processing theory and random sampling methods. An improved additive random sampling method and the sampling time sequence obtained by this method had the same probability density function with the existing random sampling method. The proposed method effectively avoiding the phenomenon of adjacent sampling time interval was too large or too small, and each sequential sampling time had a clear causal relationship. On this basis, a novel resource-saving audio signal acquisition method was designed. In the proposed signal acquisition method, the audio signal acquisition was completed by cooperation between the sensor nodes and the sink nodes. The sensor nodes took the low frequency random sampling with the sparse audio signal, and the sink nodes reconstructed the original signal with high probability by using the received random sampling data. Then a test system was established with 13 acquisition nodes and a sink node based on the Zigbee network technology, and this system was used to implement the remote, wireless, and distributed acquisition of the crawl acoustic signal of Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults in grain barrel. In the test system, the proposed signal acquisition method was compared with the existing data compression method. Results showed that if the maximum data reconstruction error was less than 0.5%, the packet loss rate was less than 10% and each acquisition node only sampled one acoustic signal, then the packet loss rate was 9.1%and the maximum reconstruction error was 0.44% by using the proposed signal acquisition method. However, if using the existing data compression method, packet loss rate and the maximum reconstruction error were 9.3% and 0.46% respectively. Two acquisition methods had similar performance, and could achieve the remote, wireless, real-time acquisition for 13 acoustic signals. For the proposed audio signal acquisition method, when the sampling frequency was as low as 196 Hz, the packet loss rate and the maximum reconstruction error were 21.6% and 0.48%, respectively. But for the proposed signal acquisition method, the sampling frequency was only 586Hz, and it effectively reduced the resource consumption of acoustic signal acquisition. The method proposed in this paper can provide references especially for the wireless sensor networks with limited resources.


Jin D.,Zhejiang University | Xu Y.,Zhejiang University | Xu Y.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | Mei X.,Zhejiang University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

Theaflavins are major polyphenols in black tea. This study investigated antiobesity and lipid lowering effects of black tea extract (BTE), a highly purified theaflavins mixture (TFs, 83.84%) and theaflavin (TF1, 93.25%) on high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. The body weight was slightly reduced by BTE and TFs (p>0.05), and was significantly decreased by TF1 (p<0.05) relative to the HFD control group. All samples remarkably decreased the food intake, adiposity index and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p<0.05), except that BTE and TF1 insignificantly decreased the TC concentration (p>0.05). Moreover, administration of BTE, TFs and TF1 all significantly decreased atherogenic index (AI), enhanced insulin sensitive index (ISI), inhibited the hepatic lipase (HL) activity (p<0.05), and slightly reduced leptin level in liver, decreased serum alanine transaminase (ALT. ) activity and increased serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (p>0.05) as compared to that of the HFD controls. These results indicated that theaflavins were one of the functional components which contributed to the antiobesity and lipid lowering effects of black tea, and might reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in obese patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ruan S.-L.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | Ruan S.-L.,China National Rice Research Institute | Ma H.-S.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | Wang S.-H.,Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science | And 7 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Background: High Salinity is a major environmental stress influencing growth and development of rice. Comparative proteomic analysis of hybrid rice shoot proteins from Shanyou 10 seedlings, a salt-tolerant hybrid variety, and Liangyoupeijiu seedlings, a salt-sensitive hybrid variety, was performed to identify new components involved in salt-stress signaling.Results: Phenotypic analysis of one protein that was upregulated during salt-induced stress, cyclophilin 2 (OsCYP2), indicated that OsCYP2 transgenic rice seedlings had better tolerance to salt stress than did wild-type seedlings. Interestingly, wild-type seedlings exhibited a marked reduction in maximal photochemical efficiency under salt stress, whereas no such change was observed for OsCYP2-transgenic seedlings. OsCYP2-transgenic seedlings had lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes than wild-type seedlings. Spatiotemporal expression analysis of OsCYP2 showed that it could be induced by salt stress in both Shanyou 10 and Liangyoupeijiu seedlings, but Shanyou 10 seedlings showed higher OsCYP2 expression levels. Moreover, circadian rhythm expression of OsCYP2 in Shanyou 10 seedlings occurred earlier than in Liangyoupeijiu seedlings. Treatment with PEG, heat, or ABA induced OsCYP2 expression in Shanyou 10 seedlings but inhibited its expression in Liangyoupeijiu seedlings. Cold stress inhibited OsCYP2 expression in Shanyou 10 and Liangyoupeijiu seedlings. In addition, OsCYP2 was strongly expressed in shoots but rarely in roots in two rice hybrid varieties.Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that OsCYP2 may act as a key regulator that controls ROS level by modulating activities of antioxidant enzymes at translation level. OsCYP2 expression is not only induced by salt stress, but also regulated by circadian rhythm. Moreover, OsCYP2 is also likely to act as a key component that is involved in signal pathways of other types of stresses-PEG, heat, cold, or ABA. © 2011 Ruan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University and Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper.


PubMed | Chinese Academy of Sciences and Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

Photosynthesis is a very important metabolic pathway for plant growth and crop yield. This report investigated the effect of the herbicide imazethapyr on photosynthesis in the Arabidopsis thaliana pnsB3 mutant (a defect in the NDH pathway) and pgr5 mutant (a defect in the PGR5 pathway) to determine which cyclic electron transport chain (CET) of the NDH and PGR5 pathways is more important for protecting the photosynthetic system under herbicide stress. The results showed that 20 g/L imazethapyr markedly inhibited the growth of the three ecotypes of A. thaliana and produced more anthocyanins and reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly in the pgr5 mutant. The chlorophyll fluorescence results showed that PSII was severely damaged in the pgr5 mutant. Additionally, the CET was significantly stimulated to protect the photosynthetic system from light damage in Wt and the pnsB3 mutant but not the pgr5 mutant. The real-time PCR analysis indicated that imazethapyr treatment considerably decreased the transcript levels of most photosynthesis-related genes in the three treated groups. Several genes in the PGR5 pathway were significantly induced in the pnsB3 mutant, but no genes in the NDH pathway were induced in the pgr5 mutant. The gene transcription analysis showed that the pgr5 mutant cannot compensate for the deficit in the PGR5 pathway by stimulating the NDH pathway, whereas the pnsB3 mutant can compensate for the deficit in the CET cycle by regulating the PGR5 pathway. The iTRAQ analyses also showed that the photosynthesis system, glycolysis, and TCA cycle suffered the most severe damage in the pgr5 mutant. All of these results showed that the PGR5 pathway is more critical for electron transfer around PSI than the NDH pathway to resist herbicide stress.


PubMed | Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University and Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of experimental botany | Year: 2016

After germination, plants progress through juvenile and adult phases of vegetative development before entering the reproductive phase. The character and timing of these phases vary significantly between different plant species, which makes it difficult to know whether temporal variations in various vegetative traits represent the same, or different, developmental processes. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of vegetative development in plants. Overexpression of miR156 prolongs the juvenile phase of development, whereas knocking-down the level of miR156 promotes the adult phase of development. Therefore, artificial modulation of miR156 expression is expected to cause corresponding changes in vegetative-specific traits in different plant species, particularly in those showing no substantial difference in morphology during vegetative development. To identify specific traits associated with the juvenile-to-adult transition in tobacco, we examined the phenotype of transgenic tobacco plants with elevated or reduced levels of miR156. We found that leaf shape, the density of abaxial trichomes, the number of leaf veins, the number of stomata, the size and density of epidermal cells, patterns of epidermal cell staining, the content of chlorophyll and the rate of photosynthesis, are all affected by miR156. These newly identified miR156-regulated traits therefore can be used to distinguish between juvenile and adult phases of development in tobacco, and provide a starting point for future studies of vegetative phase change in the family Solanaceae.

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