Hanes Veterinary Medical Center

Asheboro, NC, United States

Hanes Veterinary Medical Center

Asheboro, NC, United States

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Archibald K.E.,North Carolina State University | Archibald K.E.,VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital | Minter L.J.,North Carolina State University | Minter L.J.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015

The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog. Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Minter L.J.,North Carolina State University | Minter L.J.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | Cullen J.M.,North Carolina State University | Loomis M.R.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2012

Background: A 15-year-old western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) died shortly after transfer to the North Carolina Zoo. Methods: Complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, and necropsy were performed. Results: Combination of compatible clinical signs, biochemical and histopathological findings fulfilled all of the CDC definition criteria of Reye's or a Reye's like syndrome. Conclusions: This report describes a case of Reye's syndrome or Reye's-like syndrome in a non-human primate. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Bailey K.M.,North Carolina State University | Minter L.J.,North Carolina State University | Minter L.J.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | Lewbart G.A.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABAA receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Monson S.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | Minter L.J.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | Minter L.J.,North Carolina State University | Krouse M.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | De Voe R.S.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

A 16-yr-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) presented with severe diarrhea shortly following transfer to the North Carolina Zoological Park. Multiple diagnostic procedures were performed over several months and the cause of the chronic diarrhea was inconclusive. Histologically, colonic mucosal biopsies were consistent with severe chronic eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic colitis with no evidence of etiologic agents present. A dietary elimination trial was conducted and an adverse food reaction to the dog chow in the diet was confirmed. © 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Minter L.J.,North Carolina State University | Minter L.J.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | Harms C.A.,North Carolina State University | Archibald K.E.,North Carolina State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to characterize the behavioral effects and changes in heart rate of four doses of alfaxalone delivered by intravascular injection to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Thirty (male, n = 27; female, n = 3) blue crabs were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups of alfaxalone: eight animals were assigned to each of the 5-, 10-, and 15-mg/kg treatment groups, and the remaining six animals were assigned to the 100-mg/kg group. Times for anesthetic induction and recovery periods were recorded. Righting reflex, defensive posturing, and heart rate were evaluated before, during, and after the anesthetic trial. Anesthesia was induced in all 14 animals consolidated into the high-dosage group (15 mg/kg [n = 8] and 100 mg/kg [n = 6]), which was significantly greater than 8 of 16 animals in the low-dosage group (5 mg/kg [n = 2] and 10 mg/kg [n = 6]). Median anesthesia induction time for all crabs was 0.4 min, with no significant difference in induction time between groups observed. Median recovery time was 9.4 min (n = 2), 6.1 min (n = 5), 11.3 min (n = 8), and 66.1 min (n = 5) for the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 100-mg/kg groups, respectively. Recovery times were significantly longer for crabs exposed to an induction dose of 100 mg/kg compared with the 10- and 15-mg/kg induction doses. A significant decrease in the median heart rate was observed between the baseline value and that observed at both induction and 5 min postinjection in the 100-mg/kg dose trial. Two mortalities were observed during the anesthesia trials (n = 1, 10 mg/kg; n = 1, 100 mg/kg), both associated with the autotomization of limbs. In summary, the intravascular administration of alfaxalone at 15 mg/kg provided rapid and reliable sedation, whereas alfaxalone administered at 100 mg/kg produced rapid and long lasting anesthesia. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Minter L.J.,North Carolina State University | Minter L.J.,Hanes Veterinary Medical Center | Dombrowski D.S.,North Carolina Museum of Natural science | Stoskopf M.K.,North Carolina State University | And 5 more authors.
Herpetological Conservation and Biology | Year: 2013

We obtained peripheral blood samples from 40 juvenile and adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus; 21 males, 19 females) to establish baseline hematology and plasma biochemical reference intervals for individual and population health assessment. We collected the snakes near mcKinney lake national fish Hatchery in central north carolina, usa during august and september 2011. Hematological and serum biochemical data, packed-cell volumes (PcV), and morphologic characteristics of both erythrocytes and leukocytes in the cottonmouths we sampled were similar to those of other ophidians. a significant difference between median PcV for male and female snakes (25.0% for males vs. 20.5% for females) may have been confounded by a significant positive correlation between PcV and both snout vent length and mass. there was no apparent relationship between the severity of the frequently observed hemogregarine-like parasitemias and the hematologic parameters examined. much as in the animals previously collected from this site for exhibition, the two largest and presumably oldest animals collected for this study had an age related increase in azurophilic-monocytes unassociated with increased intensity of hemogregarine-like organism parasitism or erythrocyte viral burden. © 2013. Larry Minter. All Rights Reserved.

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