Franz C.M.A.P.,Max Rubner Institute |
Huch M.,Max Rubner Institute |
Abriouel H.,University of Jaen |
Holzapfel W.,Handong Global University |
Galvez A.,University of Jaen
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011
Enterococci belong to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and they are of importance in foods due to their involvement in food spoilage and fermentations, as well as their utilisation as probiotics in humans and slaughter animals. However, they are also important nosocomial pathogens that cause bacteraemia, endocarditis and other infections. Some strains are resistant to many antibiotics and possess virulence factors such as adhesins, invasins, pili and haemolysin. The role of enterococci in disease has raised questions on their safety for use in foods or as probiotics. Studies on the incidence of virulence traits among enterococcal strains isolated from food showed that some can harbour virulence traits, but it is also thought that virulence is not the result of the presence of specific virulence determinants alone, but is rather a more intricate process. Specific genetic lineages of hospital-adapted strains have emerged, such as E. faecium clonal complex (CC) 17 and E. faecalis CC2, CC9, CC28 and CC40, which are high risk enterococcal clonal complexes. These are characterised by the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and/or virulence factors, often located on pathogenicity islands or plasmids. Mobile genetic elements thus are considered to play a major role in the establishment of problematic lineages. Although enterococci occur in high numbers in certain types of fermented cheeses and sausages, they are not deliberately added as starter cultures. Some E. faecium and E. faecalis strains are used as probiotics and are ingested in high numbers, generally in the form of pharmaceutical preparations. Such probiotics are administered to treat diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or irritable bowel syndrome, to lower cholesterol levels or to improve host immunity. In animals, enterococcal probiotics are mainly used to treat or prevent diarrhoea, for immune stimulation or to improve growth. From a food microbiological point of view, the safety of the bacteria used as probiotics must be assured, and data on the major strains in use so far indicate that they are safe. The advantage of use of probiotics in slaughter animals, from a food microbiological point of view, lies in the reduction of zoonotic pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract of animals which prevents the transmission of these pathogens via food. The use of enterococcal probiotics should, in view of the development of problematic lineages and the potential for gene transfer in the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals, be carefully monitored, and the advantages of using these and new strains should be considered in a well contemplated risk/benefit analysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Hwang S.S.,Handong Global University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016
For the efficient expression of information, graphic designers utilize colors or various combinations of colors. Unfortunately, the information expressed by colors may be lost depending on the characteristics of viewers and environment. This paper presents an image analysis algorithm which informs designers of these information losses and helps them to produce graphic designs that are robust to various situations. The proposed method first generates the simulated model of the design and applies the equivalent segmentation algorithm to the original design and the simulated model. As a result of segmentation, each image is partitioned into several groups. And by measuring the ratio between the number of groups in the original design and that in the simulated model, the information loss can be estimated. With the proposed algorithm, designers can easily perceive that the use of certain colors or combination of colors should be avoided to minimize the information loss. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
Lee J.-Y.,Handong Global University
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2010
In this paper, the characteristics of ultrawideband (UWB) channels on outdoor roadway and indoor parking environments are investigated. A set of propagation measurements were conducted on roadways and in underground parking garages, and the resulting propagation data consist of approximately 1200 measured signals. Multipath properties are characterized using tapped-delay-line and SalehValenzuela (SV) models. Power-law-type decay patterns are observed in the ray-energy decay, as well as in the power delay profile. Results are compared with existing UWB models, including the IEEE 802.15.4a channel model. © 2006 IEEE.
Tamang J.P.,Sikkim University |
Watanabe K.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology |
Holzapfel W.H.,Handong Global University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016
Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups ("phylotypes") may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. © 2016 Tamang, Watanabe and Holzapfel.
Kim K.,Handong Global University |
Kim H.,Daegu University
Journal of Next Generation Information Technology | Year: 2011
Up to now a considerable number of studies have been conducted on the localization methods for stationary wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However little attention has been given to the localization scheme for a mobile wireless sensor network (MWSN) where all sensor nodes are moving. In this paper, we propose a self-localization scheme with relay nodes which transmit the information from an anchor node to a sensor node over a communication range of one-hop from an anchor node. The main idea in our scheme is to select a relay node as the one which maintains proximity with an anchor node longest along its moving direction. Our idea can be used widely for the applications on tracking mobile objects continuously. Our scheme enables the reduction of energy consumption in MWSN and records accurate positions of each node.