Hamline University is an American private liberal arts college in Saint Paul, Minnesota, founded in 1854 and named after Bishop Leonidas Lent Hamline of the United Methodist Church. Hamline is the oldest institution of higher learning in Minnesota and one of five Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities.The university comprises five faculties, including Hamline University School of Law, and has an enrollment of 2,100 undergraduate and 2,800 postgraduate students. In 2011, Hamline was first in Minnesota and ninth in the U.S. in the Regional Universities—Midwest category of U.S. News and World Report's college rankings. Linda N. Hanson is the university's 19th president, inaugurated in 2005. Wikipedia.
Kahn J.,Hamline University
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics | Year: 2012
This article is concerned about what may be happening to race and medicine in the "meantime" between today's clinical realities and the promised land of pharmacogenomics where the need for using race in medicine is supposed to fade away. It argues that previous debates over the use of race in medicine are being side-stepped as race is being reconfigured from a "crude surrogate" for genetic variation into a purportedly viable placeholder for variable drug response - to be used here and now until the specific genetic underpinnings of drug response are more fully understood. Embracing the trope of "promise" in pharmacogenomics alongside the idea of using race as a useful interim proxy for genetic variation raises concerns that new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions may reflect or be mapped upon existing social categories of race, class, gender, and ethnicity in a harmful or dangerous manner. At the most basic level, the politics of the meantime in pharmacogenomics may be promoting the scientifically unjustified and socially dangerous recasting of race as a social and historical construct into a reified genetic category. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Shaw F.H.,Hamline University |
Baer C.F.,University of Florida
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011
Mutation rate may be condition dependent, whereby individuals in poor condition, perhaps from high mutation load, have higher mutation rates than individuals in good condition. Agrawal (J. Evol. Biol.15, 2002, 1004) explored the basic properties of fitness-dependent mutation rate (FDMR) in infinite populations and reported some heuristic results for finite populations. The key parameter governing how infinite populations evolve under FDMR is the curvature (k) of the relationship between fitness and mutation rate. We extend Agrawal's analysis to finite populations and consider dominance and epistasis. In finite populations, the probability of long-term existence depends on k. In sexual populations, positive curvature leads to low equilibrium mutation rate, whereas negative curvature results in high mutation rate. In asexual populations, negative curvature results in rapid extinction via 'mutational meltdown', whereas positive curvature sometimes allows persistence. We speculate that fitness-dependent mutation rate may provide the conditions for genetic architecture to diverge between sexual and asexual taxa. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Pope T.M.,Hamline University |
Pope T.M.,Albany Medical College
Chest | Year: 2012
The four previous articles in this series have traced the history of patient autonomy and have identified its ethical and legal foundations. Patient autonomy is highly valued in the United States to the extent that the patient does not lose the right of self-determination when he or she loses the capacity to make health-care decisions for him or herself. The law has devised several tools to promote "prospective autonomy." One mechanism is the instructional advance directive or living will. But most of us do not write such directives. Another mechanism is the proxy directive or durable power of attorney for health care, designating another person, a surrogate, to direct the course of our medical treatment upon our incapacity. But most of us do not do that either. Therefore, the most common mechanism by which our prospective autonomy is protected and promoted is through the informal selection of surrogates based on statutory priority lists. These "default" surrogates are the most numerous type of surrogate. This article explains the importance and legal fundamentals of surrogate decision making. It first describes five basic types of surrogates. The article then looks at the role of these surrogates and how they are supposed to make decisions on the patient's behalf. Unfortunately, surrogate performance is often mediocre or poor. There are significant and persistent obstacles to good surrogate decision making. After explaining these problems, the article concludes by identifying several solutions. © 2012 American College of Chest Physicians.
Pope T.M.,Hamline University
Journal of Clinical Ethics | Year: 2013
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA). Enacted in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court's Cruzan decision in 1990, the PSDA remains a seminal event in the development of U.S. bioethics public policy, but the PSDA has long been criticized as inadequate and ineffective. Finally, recent legislative and regulatory changes promise to revitalize and rejuvenate it. The PSDA has been the subject of recent articles in The Journal of Clinical Ethics.1 I categorize new legal developments concerning the PSDA into the following eight sections: 1. Background and History 2. Rules and Requirements 3. Criticism and Challenges 4. Failed Efforts to Amend the PSDA 5. Personalize Your Care Act of 2013 6. New Regulations 7. New Regulatory Guidance 8. Expanded Enforcement © 2013 by The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Shaw R.G.,University of Minnesota |
Shaw F.H.,Hamline University
Heredity | Year: 2014
The additive genetic variance with respect to absolute fitness, V A (W), divided by mean absolute fitness sets the rate of ongoing adaptation. Fisher's key insight yielding this quantitative prediction of adaptive evolution, known as the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, is well appreciated by evolutionists. Nevertheless, extremely scant information about V A (W) is available for natural populations. Consequently, the capacity for fitness increase via natural selection is unknown. Particularly in the current context of rapid environmental change, which is likely to reduce fitness directly and, consequently, the size and persistence of populations, the urgency of advancing understanding of immediate adaptive capacity is extreme. We here explore reasons for the dearth of empirical information about V A (W), despite its theoretical renown and critical evolutionary role. Of these reasons, we suggest that expectations that V A (W) is negligible, in general, together with severe statistical challenges of estimating it, may largely account for the limited empirical emphasis on it. To develop insight into the dynamics of V A (W) in a changing environment, we have conducted individual-based genetically explicit simulations. We show that, as optimizing selection on a trait changes steadily over generations, V A (W) can grow considerably, supporting more rapid adaptation than would the V A (W) of the base population. We call for direct evaluation of V A (W) and in support of prediction of rates adaptive evolution, and we advocate for the use of aster modeling as a rigorous basis for achieving this goal. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.