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Hameenlinna, Finland

HAMK University of Applied science is an institution of higher education with seven locations in Finland. Its programmes are coordinated with industry and commerce.HAMK offers 28 bachelor-level and 7 master-level degree programmes in six fields of study: Culture; Natural Resources and the Environment; Natural science; Social Services, Health and Sports; Technology, Communication and Transport; and Social science, Business and Administration. Four bachelor-level programmes are taught in English: Automation Engineering; Construction Engineering; International Business; Mechanical Engineering and Production Technology. In addition, one master-level programme is taught in English: Business Management and Entrepreneurship.Bachelor’s degree studies comprise basic and professional studies, optional studies, work placement and a Bachelor’s thesis. The extent of the studies is 210–240 ECTS credits and the duration is 3.5 to 4 years.HAMK also offers research and development services, professional specialisation studies, further and continuing education and studies in the Open University of Applied science.HAMK operates at seven locations: Evo, Forssa, Hämeenlinna, Lepaa, Mustiala, Riihimäki and Valkeakoski. There are approximately 7,000 students and 800 staff members. Wikipedia.

Jarnstedt J.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Tuominen S.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Ginzler C.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Holopainen M.,University of Helsinki | Viitala R.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Airborne laser scanning is today considered the most accurate remote sensing method for forest inventory. The main advantage of laser scanning is the three-dimensional data. Three-dimensional canopy surface models can also be derived by means of digital aerial photogrammetry on the basis of optical remote sensing imagery. The photogrammetric surface models require high-resolution aerial images with stereo coverage. In this study, both a canopy height model derived from a photogrammetric digital surface model and laser point data were tested in estimation of sample-plot-level forest attributes. The attributes tested include diameter, mean and dominant height, basal area, and volume of growing stock. The results indicate that the laser data give higher accuracy for the estimated forest variables than does the photogrammetric canopy height model. The stand dominant height was the most accurately estimated variable from both data sources and showed the smallest difference between the laser data and photogrammetric canopy height models. The performance of the photogrammetric model was poorest in estimation of basal area and volume of growing stock. © 2012 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

Pakarinen A.,PO Box 27 | Maijala P.,PO Box 27 | Stoddard F.L.,PO Box 27 | Santanen A.,PO Box 27 | And 3 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Three annual plant species, maize, hemp and faba bean were tested for suitability as dedicated biomass crops in Boreal conditions. Biomass yields were 10-15 t ha-1. The crops were analyzed for their composition and tested as raw materials for conversion to methane and to fermentable sugars. The methane yield was 379 ± 16 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from maize, 387 ± 20 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from faba bean and 239 ± 9 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from hemp. Based on the yield per hectare, maize proved to be the most potential raw material source for methane production. Analogous to methane production, maize was the most productive raw material also in standard hydrolysis tests, with a conversion yield of about 80% of the theoretical sugars. Based on the amount of carbohydrates, the highest theoretical yield per hectare was obtained with hemp. However, considering all parameters, including the need for weeding and fertilizers, all three crops studied proved to be attractive options for cultivation in boreal conditions as well as being used as energy crops in boreal climate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pakarinen A.,University of Helsinki | Maijala P.,University of Helsinki | Jaakkola S.,University of Helsinki | Stoddard F.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2011

Background: The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. Results: The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. Conclusions: The results of the present work show that ensiling and alkaline preservation of fresh crop materials are useful pretreatment methods for methane production. Improvements in enzymatic hydrolysis were also promising. While all three crops still require a more powerful pretreatment to release the maximum amount of carbohydrates, anaerobic preservation is clearly a suitable storage and pretreatment method prior to production of platform sugars from fresh crops. © 2011 Pakarinen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ritari J.,University of Helsinki | Koskinen K.,University of Helsinki | Hultman J.,University of Helsinki | Kurola J.M.,University of Helsinki | And 4 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2012

Background: Microbial anaerobic digestion (AD) is used as a waste treatment process to degraDe complex organic compounds into methane. The archaeal and bacterial taxa involved in AD are well known, whereas composition of the fungal community in the process has been less studied. The present study aimed to reveal the composition of archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities in response to increasing organic loading in mesophilic and thermophilic AD processes by applying 454 amplicon sequencing technology. Furthermore, a DNA microarray method was evaluated in order to develop a tool for monitoring the microbiological status of AD. Results: The 454 sequencing showed that the diversity and number of bacterial taxa decreased with increasing organic load, while archaeal i.e. methanogenic taxa remained more constant. The number and diversity of fungal taxa increased during the process and varied less in composition with process temperature than bacterial and archaeal taxa, even though the fungal diversity increased with temperature as well. Evaluation of the microarray using AD sample DNA showed correlation of signal intensities with sequence read numbers of corresponding target groups. The sensitivity of the test was found to be about 1%. Conclusions: The fungal community survives in anoxic conditions and grows with increasing organic loading, suggesting that Fungi may contribute to the digestion by metabolising organic nutrients for bacterial and methanogenic groups. The microarray proof of principle tests suggest that the method has the potential for semiquantitative detection of target microbial groups given that comprehensive sequence data is available for probe design. © 2012 Ritari et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Maenpaa T.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences | Paavilainen E.,University of Tampere | Astedt-Kurki P.,University of Tampere
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: The foundation of the health and well-being of a child in primary school age is the family. To promote the child's comprehensive health, we must develop the cooperation between the family and the primary school nurse. Aim: The aim of the study was to develop a family nursing oriented substantive theory of cooperation between primary school nurses and families. Method: The study used grounded theory based on Straussian principles. Data were collected from sixth-graders (N=22) using group discussions. Interviews were conducted with parents (N=19), and the views of school nurses (N=20) on their cooperation with families were obtained via free form essays. Findings: The core concept of the theory describing cooperation between primary school nurses and families is problem-based communication. As a result of the analysis, nine-2-dimensional concepts were formed to describe this cooperation. The theory is structured further by four dimensions, which contain concepts explaining them and which also describe the relationships between the different concepts. These dimensions are the meeting between the school nurse and the family, mutual exchange of information, attending to the child's health monitoring and being at school for the child and family. The substantive theory describing cooperation between the primary school nurse and family entails the concepts formed in the analysis, their interrelationships, as well as, the core concept. Conclusions: Primary school nurses can apply the resulting theory while working with families and while developing this cooperation. This theory can also be implemented in developing nursing education. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

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