HAMK University of Applied Sciences

www.hamk.fi
Hameenlinna, Finland

HAMK University of Applied science is an institution of higher education with seven locations in Finland. Its programmes are coordinated with industry and commerce.HAMK offers 28 bachelor-level and 7 master-level degree programmes in six fields of study: Culture; Natural Resources and the Environment; Natural science; Social Services, Health and Sports; Technology, Communication and Transport; and Social science, Business and Administration. Four bachelor-level programmes are taught in English: Automation Engineering; Construction Engineering; International Business; Mechanical Engineering and Production Technology. In addition, one master-level programme is taught in English: Business Management and Entrepreneurship.Bachelor’s degree studies comprise basic and professional studies, optional studies, work placement and a Bachelor’s thesis. The extent of the studies is 210–240 ECTS credits and the duration is 3.5 to 4 years.HAMK also offers research and development services, professional specialisation studies, further and continuing education and studies in the Open University of Applied science.HAMK operates at seven locations: Evo, Forssa, Hämeenlinna, Lepaa, Mustiala, Riihimäki and Valkeakoski. There are approximately 7,000 students and 800 staff members. Wikipedia.

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Jarnstedt J.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Tuominen S.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Ginzler C.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Holopainen M.,University of Helsinki | Viitala R.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Airborne laser scanning is today considered the most accurate remote sensing method for forest inventory. The main advantage of laser scanning is the three-dimensional data. Three-dimensional canopy surface models can also be derived by means of digital aerial photogrammetry on the basis of optical remote sensing imagery. The photogrammetric surface models require high-resolution aerial images with stereo coverage. In this study, both a canopy height model derived from a photogrammetric digital surface model and laser point data were tested in estimation of sample-plot-level forest attributes. The attributes tested include diameter, mean and dominant height, basal area, and volume of growing stock. The results indicate that the laser data give higher accuracy for the estimated forest variables than does the photogrammetric canopy height model. The stand dominant height was the most accurately estimated variable from both data sources and showed the smallest difference between the laser data and photogrammetric canopy height models. The performance of the photogrammetric model was poorest in estimation of basal area and volume of growing stock. © 2012 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).


Leppisaari I.,Centria University of Applied Sciences | Herrington J.A.N.,Murdoch University | Vainio L.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences | Im Y.,Hanyang University
Journal of Interactive Learning Research | Year: 2013

The implementation of authentic learning elements at education institutions in five countries, across eight online courses in total, is examined in this paper. The International Virtual Benchmarking Project (2009-2010) applied the elements of authentic learning developed by Herrington and Oliver (2000) as criteria to evaluate authenticity. Twelve teachers in four benchmarking pairs applied these elements to compare practices and identify development challenges in their online courses. The results indicate multiple roles and perspectives and scaffolding were the most strongly implemented elements. Collaborative construction of knowledge was implemented weakly. Development challenges were identified, such as the need for continuous authentic assessment. The project raised teachers' awareness of cultural background as a factor affecting views on authentic e-learning, and highlighted the need for differences in the cultural codes of e-learning to be considered when developing multicultural learning.


Ritari J.,University of Helsinki | Koskinen K.,University of Helsinki | Hultman J.,University of Helsinki | Kurola J.M.,University of Helsinki | And 4 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2012

Background: Microbial anaerobic digestion (AD) is used as a waste treatment process to degraDe complex organic compounds into methane. The archaeal and bacterial taxa involved in AD are well known, whereas composition of the fungal community in the process has been less studied. The present study aimed to reveal the composition of archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities in response to increasing organic loading in mesophilic and thermophilic AD processes by applying 454 amplicon sequencing technology. Furthermore, a DNA microarray method was evaluated in order to develop a tool for monitoring the microbiological status of AD. Results: The 454 sequencing showed that the diversity and number of bacterial taxa decreased with increasing organic load, while archaeal i.e. methanogenic taxa remained more constant. The number and diversity of fungal taxa increased during the process and varied less in composition with process temperature than bacterial and archaeal taxa, even though the fungal diversity increased with temperature as well. Evaluation of the microarray using AD sample DNA showed correlation of signal intensities with sequence read numbers of corresponding target groups. The sensitivity of the test was found to be about 1%. Conclusions: The fungal community survives in anoxic conditions and grows with increasing organic loading, suggesting that Fungi may contribute to the digestion by metabolising organic nutrients for bacterial and methanogenic groups. The microarray proof of principle tests suggest that the method has the potential for semiquantitative detection of target microbial groups given that comprehensive sequence data is available for probe design. © 2012 Ritari et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Pakarinen A.,University of Helsinki | Maijala P.,University of Helsinki | Jaakkola S.,University of Helsinki | Stoddard F.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2011

Background: The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. Results: The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. Conclusions: The results of the present work show that ensiling and alkaline preservation of fresh crop materials are useful pretreatment methods for methane production. Improvements in enzymatic hydrolysis were also promising. While all three crops still require a more powerful pretreatment to release the maximum amount of carbohydrates, anaerobic preservation is clearly a suitable storage and pretreatment method prior to production of platform sugars from fresh crops. © 2011 Pakarinen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yu X.,Finnish Geodetic Institute | Hyyppa J.,Finnish Geodetic Institute | Vastaranta M.,University of Helsinki | Holopainen M.,University of Helsinki | Viitala R.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

This paper depicts an approach for predicting individual tree attributes, i.e., tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and stem volume, based on both physical and statistical features derived from airborne laser-scanning data utilizing a new detection method for finding individual trees together with random forests as an estimation method. The random forests (also called regression forests) technique is a nonparametric regression method consisting of a set of individual regression trees. Tests of the method were performed, using 1476 trees in a boreal forest area in southern Finland and laser data with a density of 2.6 points per m2. Correlation coefficients (R) between the observed and predicted values of 0.93, 0.79 and 0.87 for individual tree height, DBH and stem volume, respectively, were achieved, based on 26 laser-derived features. The corresponding relative root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) were 10.03%, 21.35% and 45.77% (38% in best cases), which are similar to those obtained with the linear regression method, with maximum laser heights, laser-estimated DBH or crown diameters as predictors. With random forests, however, the forest models currently used for deriving the tree attributes are not needed. Based on the results, we conclude that the method is capable of providing a stable and consistent solution for determining individual tree attributes using small-footprint laser data. © 2010 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).


Maenpaa T.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences | Paavilainen E.,University of Tampere | Astedt-Kurki P.,University of Tampere
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: The foundation of the health and well-being of a child in primary school age is the family. To promote the child's comprehensive health, we must develop the cooperation between the family and the primary school nurse. Aim: The aim of the study was to develop a family nursing oriented substantive theory of cooperation between primary school nurses and families. Method: The study used grounded theory based on Straussian principles. Data were collected from sixth-graders (N=22) using group discussions. Interviews were conducted with parents (N=19), and the views of school nurses (N=20) on their cooperation with families were obtained via free form essays. Findings: The core concept of the theory describing cooperation between primary school nurses and families is problem-based communication. As a result of the analysis, nine-2-dimensional concepts were formed to describe this cooperation. The theory is structured further by four dimensions, which contain concepts explaining them and which also describe the relationships between the different concepts. These dimensions are the meeting between the school nurse and the family, mutual exchange of information, attending to the child's health monitoring and being at school for the child and family. The substantive theory describing cooperation between the primary school nurse and family entails the concepts formed in the analysis, their interrelationships, as well as, the core concept. Conclusions: Primary school nurses can apply the resulting theory while working with families and while developing this cooperation. This theory can also be implemented in developing nursing education. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.


Pakarinen A.,PO Box 27 | Maijala P.,PO Box 27 | Stoddard F.L.,PO Box 27 | Santanen A.,PO Box 27 | And 3 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Three annual plant species, maize, hemp and faba bean were tested for suitability as dedicated biomass crops in Boreal conditions. Biomass yields were 10-15 t ha-1. The crops were analyzed for their composition and tested as raw materials for conversion to methane and to fermentable sugars. The methane yield was 379 ± 16 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from maize, 387 ± 20 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from faba bean and 239 ± 9 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from hemp. Based on the yield per hectare, maize proved to be the most potential raw material source for methane production. Analogous to methane production, maize was the most productive raw material also in standard hydrolysis tests, with a conversion yield of about 80% of the theoretical sugars. Based on the amount of carbohydrates, the highest theoretical yield per hectare was obtained with hemp. However, considering all parameters, including the need for weeding and fertilizers, all three crops studied proved to be attractive options for cultivation in boreal conditions as well as being used as energy crops in boreal climate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Nieminen P.,University of Oulu | Nieminen P.,University of Eastern Finland | Polonen I.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences | Mustonen A.-M.,University of Eastern Finland
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

β-Sitosterol is a weakly estrogenic phytosterol used in functional foods to lower elevated serum cholesterol concentrations. It has been reported to cause reproductive disturbances in fish and lower the sperm count of rodents but, in contrast, there were indications of enhanced reproduction in a preliminary study on the brown American mink (Neovison vison). In the present experiment the effects of chronic dietary β-sitosterol exposure on the reproduction of the American mink were evaluated with a large number of experimental animals. Male and female finnwhite mink (n = 200) - a previously uninvestigated color type with lower reproductive success compared to brown mink - were exposed to 50 mg β-sitosterol kg-1 d-1 for 10 months and compared with 200 control animals. After 3 months in November, 15 males per group were sacrificed and their biochemical variables determined. The serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were lower in the β-sitosterol-exposed group, while other effects were minor. The females were mated with the top-rated males (4-5:1) in March and their reproductive performance was determined. The reproductive success increased in the β-sitosterol group with significantly fewer barren females and a higher number of successfully reproducing females than in the control group, which supports previous studies on brown mink and voles indicating that β-sitosterol could be used to enhance the reproductive performance of these mammals. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Manni K.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Manni K.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences | Rinne M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Huhtanen P.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

A 2×3 factorial design with 53 Finnish Ayrshire bulls was used to study the effects of level and allocation regime of concentrate on performance and carcass quality of growing dairy bulls. The concentrate was given at low (L) or high (H) level and the respective concentrate dry matter (DM) allocations were 39 or 74g/kg0.60 live weight (LW), respectively. The concentrate allocation regimes within both concentrate levels were steady (SR), and increased (IR) or decreased (DR) during the later part of the growing period. Grass silage was offered for ad libitum intake. The bulls were slaughtered at LW of 550kg.Increased allowance of concentrate decreased silage intake (. P<0.001) but total DM intake (DMI) increased (. P<0.05). Decrease in silage DMI per kg increase of concentrate DMI was 0.81. Concentrate allocation regime tended to decrease DMI (. P<0.10) when IR and DR were compared to SR. There was no effect of the level of concentrate on the efficiency of microbial N synthesis in the rumen estimated by urinary purine derivative excretion. Microbial N synthesis per day increased (. P<0.05) as a result of increased DMI.Increased concentrate level increased LW gain (LWG) from 1059 to 1158. g/d (. P<0.01). Growth rate response was 73. g/day per 1. kg concentrate DMI. The LWG in the late part of growing period decreased slightly in SR and dramatically in DR, but was maintained in IR, as a response to changes in concentrate allocation in DR and IR. Concentrate level did not affect the growth patterns. When the total growing period was observed, concentrate allocation regimes did not affect LWG. Increased concentrate intake shortened the growing period by 29 days (. P<0.05) but concentrate allocation regime did not affect it.Increased concentrate level tended to increase carcass fatness (. P<0.10) and concentrate allocation decreased (. P<0.01) it when IR and DR were compared to SR. Concentrate level or concentrate allocation regime did not affect dressing proportion or carcass conformation.The results of this study confirm that increasing concentrate allowance is a possible method to increase growth rate and shorten the growing period of dairy bulls, but it also increases carcass fatness. The responses to concentrate allocation regime demonstrate the great ability of growing bulls to adapt to different kinds of feeding regimes without decreasing the production and may also reduce carcass fatness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Hall D.,HAMK University of Applied Sciences
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2010

The main aim of this paper is to offer a brief evaluation of recent transport geography research and publication. It examines critical observations on the sub-discipline from the past two decades, and endeavours to illustrate how the engagement of transport geography belies at least some criticisms. Arguing that both 'positivist' and 'new mobilities' approaches have validity in a transport geography research agenda, the paper goes onto exemplify this through brief discussions of areas where transport geography could gain a higher profile and where clear mutual benefit would result from greater engagement, notably, at the interface between transport and tourism, focusing on mobilities in post-transition Central and Eastern Europe and climate change issues. Finally, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made to inform a transport geography research agenda. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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