Hamilton, New Zealand
Hamilton, New Zealand

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Goddard K.,Hamilton Zoo
New Zealand Journal of Zoology | Year: 2010

Egg strings and larvae of Hochstetter's frog (Leiopelma hochstetteri) were located at three widely separated North Island sites: in seeps at Brynderwyns in December 2004, in an open pool at Wharerino in March 2009, and in an underground pool near the Kaipawa Track, Coromandel, in late May 2009. Ten egg strings were also laid by captive frogs in water courses at Hamilton Zoo in April 2009. All egg strings held from 11 to 13 eggs. The egg strings laid in the Brynderwyns were regularly observed until metamorphosis was completed in March 2005. Twenty-four swimming larvae emerged from 25 capsules at c. 40 days after discovery, and at least 14 froglets were produced at c. 90 days. All of them developed in darkness, in a 120 ml pool <30 mm deep. The emerged froglets ranged from 9.8 to 10.8 mm snout-vent length. The detection of eggs, larvae and < 11 mm froglets indicates that the egg laying period is at least from late September to May. © 2010 The Royal Society of New Zealand.


Hitchmough R.,Research and Development Group | Neilson K.,Research and Development Group | Neilson K.,New River Management | Goddard K.,Hamilton Zoo | And 4 more authors.
New Zealand Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012

'Microbranding', a system for individually identifying reptiles and amphibians based on a numbered code of spot brands applied to the body and limbs, was tested on New Zealand skinks and geckos. Common geckos (Woodworthia maculata) and copper skinks (Oligosoma aeneum) were used as test animals. Brands applied in autumn took 3 months or more to heal. There was no evidence of brand-related mortality or increased parasite loads in branded animals. However, after healing the brands faded very rapidly in the skinks to become totally unreadable in all surviving branded skinks after 2.5 years and not accurately readable in most geckos after 3 years. We therefore consider the technique unsuitable as a standard marking procedure for New Zealand lizards. © New Zealand Ecological Society.


Shaw S.D.,James Cook University | Shaw S.D.,New Zealand Center for Conservation Medicine | Bishop P.J.,University of Otago | Harvey C.,Gribbles Veterinary Laboratories | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

This report describes the investigations into the cause and treatment of metabolic bone disease (MBD) in captive native New Zealand frogs (Leiopelma spp.) and the role of fluoride in the disease. MBD was diagnosed in Leiopelma archeyi and Leiopelma hochstetteri in 2008 at three institutions: Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, and the University of Otago. Most of these frogs had originally been held at the University of Canterbury for several years (2000-2004) but some were collected directly from the wild. Radiographs on archived and live frogs showed that MBD had been present at Canterbury, but at a lower rate (3%) than in the current institutions (38-67%). Microcomputed tomography showed that the femoral diaphyses of the captive frogs at Auckland Zoo had greater bone volume, bone surface, cross-sectional thickness, and mean total cross-sectional bone perimeter, which is consistent with osteofluorosis. On histology of the same femurs, there was hyperplasia, periosteal growth, and thickening of trabeculae, which are also consistent with skeletal fluorosis. An increase in fluoride levels in the water supply preceded the rise in the incidence of the above pathology, further supporting the diagnosis of osteofluorosis. Analysis of long-standing husbandry practices showed that ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure and the dietary calcium:phosphorus ratio were deficient when compared with wild conditions-likely causing chronic underlying MBD. To prevent multifactorial MBD in captive Leiopelma, the authors recommend increasing dietary calcium by incorporating into the captive diet inherently calcium-rich invertebrates; increasing exposure to natural or artificial (UVB) light; and using defluoridated water. Addressing these three factors at Auckland Zoo reduced morbidity, bone fractures, and mortality rates. Copyright © 2012 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

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