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Schaffer J.M.,Stanford Hospital and Clinics | Singh S.K.,Hamilton General Hospital | Reitz B.A.,Stanford Hospital and Clinics | Oyer P.E.,Stanford Hospital and Clinics | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Allosensitization in potential orthotopic heart transplant recipients is evaluated with the panel reactive antibody assay. Sensitized patients have prolonged wait times and increased waitlist and post-transplant mortality. Although low panel reactive antibody activity at the time of orthotopic heart transplantation is associated with improved outcomes, literature regarding the survival benefit of a panel reactive antibody reduction in the sensitized orthotopic heart transplant recipient remains limited. Methods: Adult orthotopic heart transplant recipients listed in the United Network for Organ Sharing database (October 1, 1987, to June 29, 2004) were stratified by peak panel reactive antibody activity and whether a substantial decline from peak to most recent panel reactive antibody activity occurred before transplant. Propensity matching adjusted for differences in recipient and donor characteristics. Graft survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression determined predictors of graft survival. Results: Pretransplant characteristics differed between sensitized patients who had a substantial decline in panel reactive antibody activity and those who did not. Propensity matching compensated for these differences. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of matched groups showed that the median graft survival was 120 months in patients with a significant panel reactive antibody reduction and 103 months in patients with a trivial reduction (P = .007, log-rank). In Cox proportional hazards modeling, a significant reduction in panel reactive antibody activity had an independent protective effect on graft survival (hazard ratio, 0.88; confidence interval, 0.80-0.96; P = .006). Conclusions: Sensitized patients who had a substantial reduction in panel reactive antibody activity had an associated decline in the incidence of graft failure compared with those without a panel reactive antibody activity reduction. These results support efforts to reduce panel reactive antibody activity before orthotopic heart transplantation in patients with high panel reactive antibody activity. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Source


Oczkowski S.,Hamilton General Hospital
Critical Care | Year: 2015

There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurtful or discriminatory. In order to maximize the benefits of humor and to reduce its harms, we need to teach and model the effective and virtuous use of humor in the intensive care unit. © 2015 Oczkowski; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Sherbino J.,Hamilton General Hospital | Frank J.R.,University of Ottawa | Snell L.,McGill University
Academic Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose: To determine a consensus definition of a clinician-educator and the related domains of competence. Method: During September 2010 to March 2011, the authors conducted a two-phase mixed-methods national study in Canada using (1) focus groups of deans of medicine and directors of medical education centers to define the attributes, domains of competence, and core competencies of clinician-educators using a grounded theory analysis, and (2) a survey of 1,130 deans, academic chairs, and residency program directors to validate the focus group results. Results The 22 focus group participants described being active in clinical practice, applying theory to practice, and engaging in education scholarship-but not holding a particular administrative position-as essential attributes of clinician-educators. Program directors accounted for 68% of the 350 survey respondents, academic chairs for 19%, and deans for 13% (response rate: 31%). Among respondents, 85% endorsed the need for physicians with advanced training in medical education to serve as educational consultants. Domains of clinician-educator competence endorsed by >85% of respondents as important or very important were assessment, communication, curriculum development, education theory, leadership, scholarship, and teaching. With regard to training requirements, 55% endorsed a master's degree in education as effective preparation, whereas 39% considered faculty development programs effective. Conclusions: On the basis of this study's findings, the authors defined a clinician-educator as a clinician active in health professional practice who applies theory to education practice, engages in education scholarship, and serves as a consultant to other health professionals on education issues. Source


Heikkila A.J.,McMaster University | Prebtani A.P.H.,Hamilton General Hospital
Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2011

A rare case is provided of a 74 year old man who presented with ascites of unknown etiology. CT scan of the abdomen revealed extensive omental caking, and omental biopsy cytogenetics showed findings in keeping with a diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT). This case is unique in that it involves a significantly older patient, negative WT1 immunohistochemical staining, and negative cytology. Despite repeated paracenteses and fluid management, the patient died in hospital secondary to renal complications. © 2011 Heikkila and Prebtani; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Kwong L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Turpie A.G.G.,Hamilton General Hospital
Current Orthopaedic Practice | Year: 2015

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality in patients after major orthopaedic surgery. Based on the results of the international phase III RECORD (Regulation of Coagulation in Orthopaedic Surgery to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism) program, the oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban has been approved in many countries for the prevention of VTE after elective hip arthroplasty or knee arthroplasty. However, study results of randomized controlled trials may have limited generalizability to routine clinical practice in unselected patients. The phase IV XAMOS (Xarelto® in the Prophylaxis of Postsurgical Venous Throboembolism after Elective Major Orthopaedic Surgery of the Hip or Knee) study and the ORTHO-TEP (large single-center registry) collected real-world data to assess the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban compared with standard of care in large cohorts of patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. This review evaluates real-world data from XAMOS and ORTHO-TEP, confirming the favorable benefit-risk profile of rivaroxaban for the prevention of VTE in patients after major orthopaedic surgery that was demonstrated by the phase III RECORD studies in patients after elective hip or knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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