Oswald A.J.,University of Warwick |
Wu S.,Hamilton College
Science | Year: 2010
A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions - asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel - such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.
Grysman A.,Hamilton College
Consciousness and Cognition | Year: 2014
This study examined strategies employed to support a positive self-image in the face of dissonant self-related memories, especially focusing on the role of gender. Participants (N= 498) were recruited online and identified a self-descriptive trait. They then reported a memory of a time when they did or did not act according to that trait. Participants distanced themselves from dissonant, self-related memories by downplaying the event's importance and relevance to identity and by emphasizing their lack of agency and the degree to which they had changed. Additionally, participants reported dissonant events from further in the past than consonant events, a tendency displayed more strongly amongst women than men. Women also rated events as more pertinent to the self on questionnaire measures. Findings demonstrate ways that autobiographical memories are reported and organized to support a positive self-image, and deepen an understanding of the role of gender in this process. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Pearle P.,Hamilton College
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015
A model is discussed where all operators are constructed from a quantum scalar field whose energy spectrum takes on all real values. The Schrödinger picture wave function depends upon space and time coordinates for each particle, as well as an inexorably increasing evolution parameter s which labels a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces. The model is constructed to be manifestly Lorentz invariant in the interaction picture. Free particle states and interactions are discussed in this framework. Then, the formalism of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) theory of dynamical collapse is applied. The collapse-generating operator is chosen to be the particle number space-time density. Unlike previous relativistically invariant models, the vacuum state is not excited. The collapse dynamics depends upon two parameters, a parameter Λ which represents the collapse rate/volume and a scale factor ℓ. A common example of collapse dynamics, involving a clump of matter in a superposition of two locations, is analyzed. The collapse rate is shown to be identical to that of nonrelativistic CSL when the GRW-CSL choice of ℓ=a=10-5 cm, is made, along with Λ=λ/a3 (GRW-CSL choice λ=10-16s-1). The collapse rate is also satisfactory with the choice ℓ as the size of the Universe, with Λ=λ/ℓa2. Because the collapse narrows wave functions in space and time, it increases a particle's momentum and energy, altering its mass. It is shown that, with ℓ=a, the change of mass of a nucleon is unacceptably large but, when ℓ is the size of the Universe, the change of mass over the age of the Universe is acceptably small. © 2015 American Physical Society.
Vasantkumar C.,Hamilton College
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2013
After the 'Bamboo Curtain' closed China to foreign social scientists in 1949, anthropologists shifted their attention to those 'residues' of China beyond the control of the People's Republic. In the process, formerly heterodox and out-of-the-way locales such as Taiwan and the New Territories of Hong Kong were made into the exemplars par excellence of Chinese culture. In this paper I argue that the peculiar spatialities of this Cold-War-era anthropology of 'residual China' have potentially generative consequences for a rethinking of the after-actor-network-theory (aANT) focus on social topologies. In particular, these spatialities' simultaneous enactment of the presence and absence of Chineseness evinces parallels with and prompts revisions to the notion of a "fire topology". These revisions in turn suggest the necessity of inventing novel topological models for (more-than-) human realities in order to work against both the creeping naturalization of after-actor-network-theory analytic frames in particular and the routinization of theory more broadly. © 2013 Pion and its Licencors.
Conover E.,Hamilton College |
Scrimgeour D.,Colgate University
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2013
We evaluate the health effects of a reduction in New Zealand's minimum legal purchase age for alcohol. Difference-in-differences (DD) estimates show a substantial increase in alcohol-related hospitalizations among those newly eligible to purchase liquor, around 24.6% (s.e.= 5.5%) for males and 22% (s.e.= 8.1%) for females. There is less evidence of an effect among ineligible younger cohorts. There is little evidence of alcohol either complementing or substituting for drugs. We do not find evidence that earlier access to alcohol is associated with learning from experience. We also present regression discontinuity estimates, but emphasize DD estimates since in a simulation of a rational addiction model DD estimates are closer than regression discontinuity estimates to the policy's true effect. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.