Karachi, Pakistan
Karachi, Pakistan

Hamdard University is a private research university with multiple campuses in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. The university was founded in 1991 by the renowned philanthropist Hakim Said of the Hamdard Foundation. Hamdard is one of the first and the oldest private institutions of higher education in Pakistan. In Karachi alone, Hamdard University is the largest private research university with a campus area of over 350 acres.Hamdard University's central library Bait-ul-Hikmah is one of the largest research libraries in South Asia with a collection of over half a million books, some of them dating back to 17th century. The university includes eight faculties, nine research institutes, three separate university teaching hospitals and three affiliated engineering institutes. There are more than 15,000 alumni of Hamdard University employed in different organisations in Pakistan and worldwide.Major programs of Hamdard University are accredited by and offered in collaboration with bodies such as the Higher Education Commission , Pakistan Engineering Council , Pakistan Medical and Dental Council , Pakistan Bar Council , National Telecommunication Corporation , and the Pakistan Pharmacy Council . Wikipedia.

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Gupta H.,Aurora Pharmaceutical | Gupta H.,Hamdard University | Aqil M.,Hamdard University
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2012

Drug delivery is a difficult task in the field of ocular therapeutics. Owing to the physiological and anatomical constraints of the eye, it is difficult to obtain the correct therapeutic concentration of a drug at the required site of action. This has led to clinicians recommending frequent dosing, which has resulted in noncompliance by patients and decreased cost effectiveness. To overcome these barriers, scientists have explored novel ocular delivery systems, such as in situ gels, ocuserts, nanoparticles and liposomes. A particularly novel form of such a delivery system are contact lenses, which are thin, curved plastic disks that are designed to cover the cornea and which cling to the surface of the eye owing to surface tension. In this article, we describe the introductory literature on ocular delivery using contact lenses, their classification and manufacturing process, and recent advances on drug delivery techniques using such lenses.


Ansari J.,Hamdard University
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2010

The topic of drug-drug interactions has received a great deal of recent attention from the regulatory, scientific, and health care communities worldwide. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. The pharmacist, along with the prescriber has a duty to ensure that patients are aware of the risk of side effects and a suitable course of action should they occur. With their detailed knowledge of medicine, pharmacists have the ability to relate unexpected symptoms experienced by patients to possible adverse effects of their drug therapy.


The biotechnological approach of in vitro cultures elicitation offers an alternative strategy for the production of camptothecin (CPT) in Nothapodytes nimmoniana to mitigate indiscriminate harvest of the endangered natural population for the alkaloid. Yeast extract (YE) and vanadyl sulfate (VS) elicitors were used to enhance the biosynthesis of CPT in hypocotyl-derived callus cultures of N. nimmoniana by cultivation using solid and liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium amended with NAA + BAP (2.0 + 1.0 mg L-1). Effects of the two elicitors on biomass and CPT production at 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 75 mg L-1 concentrations using callus cultures from three cell lines were evaluated after 15, 30 and 45 days culture. Yeast extract elicitor treatments showed a linear enhancement effect on biomass and CPT production up to 50 mg L-1 YE and beyond the concentrations, no significant effect was observed. Enhanced biomass and CPT production were achieved with VS elicitor up to 25 mg L-1 concentrations but, 50 and 75 mg L-1 VS had minimal effects on biomass and CPT production in callus sources and incubation duration-dependent manner. The intracellular yield of CPT in liquid media-cultivated cultures at concentrations of the two elicitors was lower when compared to solid media treatments relative control due to the extracellular accumulation but, higher overall production. Accumulation of the biomass showed association with produced CPT in the elicitor treatments and control cultures. © 2016 Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences.


Singh B.K.,Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology | Haque S.E.,Hamdard University | Pillai K.K.,Hamdard University
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs) and traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs), have been widely used for the treatment of pain and rheumatic disease. The use of NSAIDs has been linked to increased cardiovascular toxicity in both healthy individuals and patients with established cardiovascular disease. Various recently published studies have raised concerns about the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs; this review is focused on the cardiotoxic effects of NSAIDs. Areas covered: This review focuses on arthritis trials, placebo-controlled trials, meta-analyses, preclinical and observational studies associated with the use of NSAIDs-induced cardiotoxicity. It analyses the data given in these studies and discusses the cardiotoxic risk of NSAIDs. Expert opinion: Analysis of various clinical, preclinical, meta-analysis and observational studies showed that coxibs and tNSAIDs increase the risk of cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxic risk depends on dose, duration and frequency of NSAID administration. Most studies were based on large medical databases with miscellaneous populations and pointed to an increase risk of cardiotoxicity under NSAID medication. The cardiotoxicity associated with use of NSAIDs might be due to inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis, oxidative stress, increase in blood pressure and impaired endothelial function. © Informa UK, Ltd.


Toklu H.Z.,Marmara University | Toklu H.Z.,Near East University | Hussain A.,Hamdard University
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2013

Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community. © 2013, InPharm Association, Published by Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ishaq H.,Hamdard University
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Anxiety and depression leads to a number of morbid states. Search of new agents which are low-priced and safe alternative is necessary. Khamira Gaozaban Ambri Jadwar Ood Salib wala (KGJ), is a product of Hamdard Laboratories (Waqf) Pakistan. They claim that it is anxiolytic, anti-convulsant and nervine tonic. However this claim is not scientifically proven. Some components are proved to be anxiolytic but combination may alter the individual properties of drugs. Therefore we designed present study to prove these properties of KGJ scientifically. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups of six animals in each group. The groups were saline group, control group (receiving Diazepam I mg/kg) and three test groups receiving 86, 170 and 360 mg/kg doses of Khamira orally. Assessments of different doses of KGJ in comparison to diazepam were carried out on anxiety paradigms namely "Elevated Plus Maze", "Light And Dark Activity Box" and "Open Field" paradigms. KGJ produced anxiolytic effects in all the behavioral methods, which were not significantly different from the effects produced by diazepam. Basal levels of corticosterone not altered by diazepam were decreased by 86 mg/kg dose of KGJ. Same dose of KGJ also decreased blood glucose levels. In conclusion, these results suggest anxiolytic potential of KGJ with non-sedative property.


Chugh M.,Malaria Research Group | Sundararaman V.,Malaria Research Group | Kumar S.,Plant Transformation Group | Reddy V.S.,Plant Transformation Group | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

Malaria parasites use hemoglobin (Hb) as a major nutrient source in the intraerythrocytic stage, during which heme is converted to hemozoin (Hz). The formation of Hz is essential for parasite survival, but to date, the underlying mechanisms of Hb degradation and Hz formation are poorly understood. We report the presence of a ∼200-kDa protein complex in the food vacuole that is required for Hb degradation and Hz formation. This complex contains several parasite proteins, including falcipain 2/2', plasmepsin II, plasmepsin IV, histo aspartic protease, and heme detoxification protein. The association of these proteins is evident from coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, coelution from a gel filtration column, cosedimentation on a glycerol gradient, and in vitro protein interaction analyses. To functionally characterize this complex, we developed an in vitro assay using two of the proteins present in the complex. Our results show that falcipain 2 and heme detoxification protein associate with each other to efficiently convert Hb to Hz. We also used this in vitro assay to elucidate the modes of action of chloroquine and artemisinin. Our results reveal that both chloroquine and artemisinin act during the heme polymerization step, and chloroquine also acts at the Hb degradation step. These results may have important implications in the development of previously undefined antimalarials.


Nasim S.A.,Hamdard University | Dhir B.,University of Delhi
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Heavy metals, accumulated naturally in soil, surface water or through industrial and mining processes, pose a potential threat to various terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Greeger 1999; Larison et al. 2000; Dwivedi and Dey 2002; Hsu et al. 2006; Dhir et al. 2008). Exposure to high metal concentrations impinges on the growth and development of plants (Rout and Das 2003; Shanker et al. 2005; Dhir et al. 2009). Such growth effects result from alterations in physiological events such as photosynthesis, respiration, changes in lipid composition, enzyme activity, and distribution of macro and micronutrients at the cellular level (Sheoran et al. 1990; Van Assche and Clijsters 1990; Rout and Das 2003; Shanker et al. 2005). Research also suggests that abiotic factors such as heavy metals may alter the production of bioactive compounds by changing aspects of secondary metabolism (Verpoorte et al. 2002). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Samim M.,Hamdard University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Gold nanorods show a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at the near infra-red (NIR) region which enables them to produce heat on irradiation with a NIR laser. As a result of this, gold nanorods have the potential to be used as thermal therapeutic agents for selective damage to cancer cells, bacterial cells, viruses, and DNA. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of approximately 5 were prepared by exploiting the normal micellar route of a water/dioctyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-T)/hexane system. The shape and size of the gold nanorods were characterized by surface plasmon bands at 520 nm and 980 nm, and by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The length of the gold nanorods was 100 nm and their diameter was 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the gold nanorods formed were metallic in nature. The gold nanorods showed good photothermolysis activity. Gold nanorods injected subcutaneously and irradiated with 980 nm laser caused injury to rat tissue, demonstrating that gold nanorods may be used to kill cancerous cells in tumor tissue.


Siddiqui N.,Hamdard University | Ahsan W.,Hamdard University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Various 3-[4-(substituted phenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino]-4-(substituted phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones (7a-t) were designed keeping in view the structural requirements suggested in the pharmacophore model for anticonvulsant activity. Thiazole and triazole moieties being anticonvulsants were clubbed together to get the titled compounds and their in vivo anticonvulsant screening were performed by two most adopted seizure models, maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ). Two compounds 7d and 7f showed significant anticonvulsant activity in both the screens with ED50 values 23.9 mg/kg and 13.4 mg/kg respectively in MES screen and 178.6 mg/kg and 81.6 mg/kg respectively in scPTZ test. They displayed a wide margin of safety with Protective index (PI), median hypnotic dose (HD50) and median lethal dose (LD50) much higher than the standard drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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