Karachi, Pakistan
Karachi, Pakistan

Hamdard University is a private research university with multiple campuses in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. The university was founded in 1991 by the renowned philanthropist Hakim Said of the Hamdard Foundation. Hamdard is one of the first and the oldest private institutions of higher education in Pakistan. In Karachi alone, Hamdard University is the largest private research university with a campus area of over 350 acres.Hamdard University's central library Bait-ul-Hikmah is one of the largest research libraries in South Asia with a collection of over half a million books, some of them dating back to 17th century. The university includes eight faculties, nine research institutes, three separate university teaching hospitals and three affiliated engineering institutes. There are more than 15,000 alumni of Hamdard University employed in different organisations in Pakistan and worldwide.Major programs of Hamdard University are accredited by and offered in collaboration with bodies such as the Higher Education Commission , Pakistan Engineering Council , Pakistan Medical and Dental Council , Pakistan Bar Council , National Telecommunication Corporation , and the Pakistan Pharmacy Council . Wikipedia.

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Shakeel F.,University of Benghazi | Faisal M.S.,Hamdard University
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology | Year: 2010

The solubility and dissolution of the poorly soluble drug celecoxib (CXB) was enhanced using many techniques like nanoemulsion, solid lipid nanoparticle and solid dispersion in the present investigation. The solubility of CXB in each formulation was determined using the reported HPLC method at the wavelength of 250nm. Dissolution studies of pure CXB and its formulations were performed using USP dissolution apparatus in distilled water. The highest solubility (228.24mg/mL) as well as % dissolution (99.9) of CXB was obtained with nanoemulsion technique. The results of solubility and dissolution were highly significant using the nanoemulsion technique as compared to other techniques (P<0.01). All three formulations showed a sustained type of drug release. The best sustained type drug release was obtained with nanoemulsion. This indicated that nanoemulsion can be successfully used for sustained and controlled drug delivery of CXB. Overall these findings suggested that nanoemulsion is a promising vehicle for solubility and dissolution enhancement of CXB.

Chugh M.,Malaria Research Group | Sundararaman V.,Malaria Research Group | Kumar S.,Plant Transformation Group | Reddy V.S.,Plant Transformation Group | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

Malaria parasites use hemoglobin (Hb) as a major nutrient source in the intraerythrocytic stage, during which heme is converted to hemozoin (Hz). The formation of Hz is essential for parasite survival, but to date, the underlying mechanisms of Hb degradation and Hz formation are poorly understood. We report the presence of a ∼200-kDa protein complex in the food vacuole that is required for Hb degradation and Hz formation. This complex contains several parasite proteins, including falcipain 2/2', plasmepsin II, plasmepsin IV, histo aspartic protease, and heme detoxification protein. The association of these proteins is evident from coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, coelution from a gel filtration column, cosedimentation on a glycerol gradient, and in vitro protein interaction analyses. To functionally characterize this complex, we developed an in vitro assay using two of the proteins present in the complex. Our results show that falcipain 2 and heme detoxification protein associate with each other to efficiently convert Hb to Hz. We also used this in vitro assay to elucidate the modes of action of chloroquine and artemisinin. Our results reveal that both chloroquine and artemisinin act during the heme polymerization step, and chloroquine also acts at the Hb degradation step. These results may have important implications in the development of previously undefined antimalarials.

Nasim S.A.,Hamdard University | Dhir B.,University of Delhi
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Heavy metals, accumulated naturally in soil, surface water or through industrial and mining processes, pose a potential threat to various terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Greeger 1999; Larison et al. 2000; Dwivedi and Dey 2002; Hsu et al. 2006; Dhir et al. 2008). Exposure to high metal concentrations impinges on the growth and development of plants (Rout and Das 2003; Shanker et al. 2005; Dhir et al. 2009). Such growth effects result from alterations in physiological events such as photosynthesis, respiration, changes in lipid composition, enzyme activity, and distribution of macro and micronutrients at the cellular level (Sheoran et al. 1990; Van Assche and Clijsters 1990; Rout and Das 2003; Shanker et al. 2005). Research also suggests that abiotic factors such as heavy metals may alter the production of bioactive compounds by changing aspects of secondary metabolism (Verpoorte et al. 2002). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Daniyal M.,Hamdard University | Akram M.,Jammu University
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association | Year: 2015

The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. © 2015.

Raza U.,Hamdard University
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

Breast carcinoma is an unpredictable disease in the sense that some patients may die at early disease stage due to wide-spread metastasis within six months to one year, while others may survive longer. This study was aimed to evaluate the risk factors for breast carcinoma occurrence and histopathological features of breast carcinoma developed in the social and economical conditions of Pakistan. A total of 224 female breast cancer diagnosed patients with uncovered medical insurance visiting at the Oncology clinic of a teaching hospital at Karachi, Pakistan were selected for the study. Two hundred and twenty-four (224) healthy female subjects free of any cancer diagnosis were selected as control from different areas of the city. Information on stress, occupation, life history, and life style was obtained through personal interviews. Breast tumour pathology was evaluated for histological grade, lymph node metastasis and hormone receptor status by using standard methods. Student's t-test, Chi-square test and ANOVA were used for comparison. Breast cancer patients in significantly high percentage reported early marriages, abortion occurrence, stressful life style, family cancer history and past disease suffering from diabetes and hypertension. Life style including aerosol chewing and fat rich food intake was significantly high among the patients (p<0.05). On histopathological analysis, patients at the age of 40 years and below were identified in significantly high percentage with tumour grade III, 1-3 lymph node metastasis and hormone receptor negative type. Increasing age was associated with low tumour grade and less percentage of lymph node metastasis. Significantly high percentage of patients were presented with hormone receptor positive tumour (p<0.05). The contributing factors for breast carcinoma occurrence were related to life history and life-style of the patients. Medical insurance uncovered patients at initial diagnosis were presented in significantly high percentage with advanced disease including high tumour grade and lymph node metastasis due to less use of preventive and screening service which delays the diagnosis, effecting both survival and treatment cost.

Samim M.,Hamdard University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Gold nanorods show a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at the near infra-red (NIR) region which enables them to produce heat on irradiation with a NIR laser. As a result of this, gold nanorods have the potential to be used as thermal therapeutic agents for selective damage to cancer cells, bacterial cells, viruses, and DNA. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of approximately 5 were prepared by exploiting the normal micellar route of a water/dioctyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-T)/hexane system. The shape and size of the gold nanorods were characterized by surface plasmon bands at 520 nm and 980 nm, and by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The length of the gold nanorods was 100 nm and their diameter was 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the gold nanorods formed were metallic in nature. The gold nanorods showed good photothermolysis activity. Gold nanorods injected subcutaneously and irradiated with 980 nm laser caused injury to rat tissue, demonstrating that gold nanorods may be used to kill cancerous cells in tumor tissue.

Hassan M.Z.,Hamdard University | Khan S.A.,Hamdard University | Amir M.,Hamdard University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

A series of N-(substituted benzothiazol-2-yl)amide derivatives 2a-h and 4a-h were synthesized by the EDC coupling reactions of substituted-benzothiazol- 2-amine with 4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid/2-benzoyl benzoic acid and evaluated for their anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effect. N-(6-methoxybenzothiazol-2- yl)-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanamide (2f) emerged as the most effective anticonvulsant with median doses of 40.96 mg/kg (MES ED50), 85.16 mg/kg (scPTZ ED50) and 347.6 mg/kg (TD50). Furthermore, compound 2f displayed promising neuroprotective effect by lowering the levels of MDA and LDH; therefore, it represents a potential lead in search for safer and effective anticonvulsants having neuroprotective effects. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Ansari J.A.,Hamdard University
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Drugs are an important reason of hepatotoxicity. In general more than 900 drugs, toxins and herbs have been reported to cause hepatotoxicity and drugs account for 20-40% of all instances of fulminant hepatic failure. Specific therapy against drug-induced hepatotoxicity is limited to the use of N-acetylcysteine in the early phases of paracetamol toxicity. L-carnitine is potentially valuable in cases of valproate toxicity. In general, corticosteroids have no definitive role in treatment. They may prevent the systemic features associated with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions. Cholestyramine can be used for alleviation of pruritus. Ursodeoxycholic acid may be used. Lastly, consulting a hepatologist is always useful for other agents, supportive measures and the increasing use of liver-assist devices as well as emergency liver transplantation are available when drug injury evolves into irreversible liver failure. It is expected that a better understanding of hepatotoxicity mechanisms will lead to the development of more specific and effective forms of therapy in the near future. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Siddiqui N.,Hamdard University | Ahsan W.,Hamdard University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Various 3-[4-(substituted phenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino]-4-(substituted phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones (7a-t) were designed keeping in view the structural requirements suggested in the pharmacophore model for anticonvulsant activity. Thiazole and triazole moieties being anticonvulsants were clubbed together to get the titled compounds and their in vivo anticonvulsant screening were performed by two most adopted seizure models, maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ). Two compounds 7d and 7f showed significant anticonvulsant activity in both the screens with ED50 values 23.9 mg/kg and 13.4 mg/kg respectively in MES screen and 178.6 mg/kg and 81.6 mg/kg respectively in scPTZ test. They displayed a wide margin of safety with Protective index (PI), median hypnotic dose (HD50) and median lethal dose (LD50) much higher than the standard drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Kumar P.,Hamdard University | Bhandari U.,Hamdard University
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum(AqE-TFG) seeds on monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Neonatal Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with MSG (4 g/kg b.w.) from day 2 to 14 after birth, on alternate days. After attaining six-weeks of age, MSG-treated rats were administered with AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1 g/kg b.w., orally) or orlistat (10 mg/kg b.w., orally) for 28 days, respectively. Serum chemistry and relevant enzymes in hepato-cardiac tissues were assessed on day 29. Results: AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), hepatic and cardiac lipid peroxides (MDA) levels and elevation in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes [glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] levels. Conclusion: Results were comparable with orlistat, a standard anti-obesity drug, and provide clear evidence that the AqE-TFG treatment offered significant protection against MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, and may play an important role in amelioration of the free radical generated consequences like dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

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