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Lee J.Y.,Hamchoon Womens Clinic | Kim E.N.,A-Life Medical | Kim E.N.,University of Ulsan | Hong J.-S.,Seoul National University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2015

Aims: Primary histopathology of miscarriage remains undetermined in the majority of cases. This study was conducted to determine histological characteristics pertinent to miscarriage. Methods: The study groups were composed of elective abortions (n=29) and miscarriages (n=45) comprised of chromosomally normal (n=15) and abnormal cases (n=30). Immunohistochemistry was done against CD3, CD8, TIA-1 and CD56. Results: Two histological features - diffuse decidual leucocytoclastic necrosis (DDLN) and decidual natural killer cell aggregates (NKCA) - were relatively common in miscarriages. The frequencies of DDLN and NKCA were different between the groups (p<0.05 and p<0.05, respectively). DDLN was found in 13.8% (4/29) of elective abortions, while it was observed in 60.0% (9/15) and 23.3% (7/30) of chromosomally normal and abnormal miscarriages, respectively. DDLN was more frequent in chromosomally normal miscarriages than in elective abortions (p=0.004). NKCA was present in 13.8% (4/29) of elective abortions, while being found in 33.3% (5/15) and 43.3% (13/30) of chromosomally normal and abnormal miscarriages, respectively. NKCA was more frequent in chromosomally abnormal miscarriages than in elective abortions (p=0.020). Conclusions: The findings strongly suggest that defective placentation and abnormal maternal immune response are associated with miscarriage. DDLN and NKCA seem to have diagnostic values in the pathological evaluation of miscarriage. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Kim K.,Hamchoon Womens Clinic
Journal of the Korean Medical Association | Year: 2015

Although conventional prenatal screening tests for Down syndrome have been developed over the past 20 years, the positive predictive value of these tests is around 5%. Through these tests, many pregnant women have taken invasive tests including chorionic villi sampling and amniocentesis for confirming Down syndrome. Invasive test carries the risk of fetal loss at a low but significant rate. There is a large amount of evidence that non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) using cell free DNA in maternal serum is more sensitive and specific than conventional maternal serum and/or ultrasound screening. Therefore implementing NIPT will increase aneuploidy detection rate and concurrently decrease fetal loss rate accompanying invasive test. More than 1,000,000 NIPT were performed globally since 2011. The uptake rate of NIPT is expected to increase more rapidly in the future. Moreover, as a molecular genetic technique advances, NIPT can be used for not only common aneuploidy screening but single gene disorder, microdeletion, and whole fetal genome sequencing. In this review, I will focus on the NIPT for common aneuploidies such as trisomy 13, 18, and 21. © Korean Medical Association. Source

Kim E.N.,University of Ulsan | Kim E.N.,Asan Medical Center | Yoon B.H.,Seoul National University | Jeon E.J.,Asan Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Placenta | Year: 2015

This study examined the occurrence of placental C-reactive protein (CRP) in normal pregnancy with term delivery, spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD), preeclampsia, and miscarriage. CRP immunoreactivity was detected in the syncytiotrophoblast. The immunopositive rate was significantly higher in sPTD than preeclampsia. The CRP immunopositive rate was also higher in acute chorioamnionitis than those without and showed a good correlation with the maternal serum CRP concentration. CRP mRNA expression was not detected in human and mouse placentas or choriocarcinoma cells. CRP may play a role in the pathological and physiological states of pregnancy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kim E.N.,University of Ulsan | Kim E.N.,Asan Medical Center | Yoon B.H.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Hamchoon Womens Clinic | And 7 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2015

Placental C4d deposition is frequent in preeclampsia, and shallow placentation is a characteristic of both preeclampsia and miscarriage. This study was conducted to determine the relationship among placental C4d, maternal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, and placental pathology in preeclampsia and miscarriage cases. The patient population (N = 104) included those with (1) preterm preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (PE-FGR; n = 21), (2) preterm preeclampsia (PE; n = 20), (3) spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD; n = 39), and (4) miscarriage (n = 24). C4d immunohistochemistry was performed, and the presence of maternal plasma HLA antibodies was examined. C4d staining of the syncytiotrophoblast was more frequent in PE-FGR patients (76.2 %) than in PE (10.0 %; p < 0.001) and sPTD (2.6 %; p < 0.001) patients. Maternal HLA antibody-positive rate was not different among the study groups. There was a significant correlation between C4d immunoreactivity and placental pathology consistent with maternal vascular underperfusion (p < 0.001) but not with maternal HLA antibody status. In miscarriages, the positive rates of C4d, HLA class I, and HLA class II antibodies were 58.3, 25.0, and 12.5 %, respectively. There was no correlation between the presence of maternal HLA class I or II antibodies and placental C4d immunoreactivity. This study confirms frequent placental C4d deposition in preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction and miscarriage. The association between placental C4d deposition and pathological findings of maternal vascular underperfusion suggests that C4d staining of the syncytiotrophoblast is a consequence of defective placentation rather than of a specific maternal immune response against fetal HLA. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of C4d as a biomarker of placentas at risk. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. Source

Moon K.Y.,Seoul National University | Kim H.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Hamchoon Womens Clinic | Lee J.R.,Seoul National University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2016

Objective: Ovarian reserve tests are commonly used to predict ovarian response in infertile patients undergoing ovarian stimulation. Although serum markers such as basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or random anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level and ultrasonographic markers (antral follicle count, AFC) are good predictors, no single test has proven to be the best predictor. In this study, we developed appropriate equations and novel nomograms to predict the number of oocytes that will be retrieved using patients' age, serum levels of basal FSH and AMH, and AFC. Methods: We analyzed a database containing clinical and laboratory information of 141 stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at a university-based hospital between September 2009 and December 2013. We used generalized linear models for prediction of the number of oocytes. Results: Age, basal serum FSH level, serum AMH level, and AFC were significantly related to the number of oocytes retrieved according to the univariate and multivariate analyses. The equations that predicted the number of oocytes retrieved (log scale) were as follows: model (1) 3.21-0.036×(age)+0.089×(AMH), model (2) 3.422-0.03×(age)-0.049×(FSH)+0.08×(AMH), model (3) 2.32-0.017×(age)+0.039×(AMH)+0. 03×(AFC), model (4) 2.584-0.015×(age)-0.035×(FSH)+0.038×(AMH)+0.026×(AFC). model 4 showed the best performance. On the basis of these variables, we developed nomograms to predict the number of oocytes that can be retrieved. Conclusion: Our nomograms helped predict the number of oocytes retrieved in stimulated IVF cycles. © 2016. The Korean Society for reproductive medicine. Source

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