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Schinas O.,Hamburg School of Business Administration | Butler M.,Intecsea
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2016

Regulatory initiatives obligate maritime operators to reduce emission via retrofitting propulsion and exhaust treatment systems or by using alternative fuels. Although these initiatives facilitate the emergence of LNG as a marine fuel, the proliferation of LNG technology is dependent on the relationship that defines the competitiveness of conventionally fueled and LNG-fueled ships. This article proposes a methodology to evaluate the commercial incentives that are required to promote LNG as a marine fuel, which can be used to assess policy initiatives that encourage the use of alternative technologies and estimate their market impact. To develop the context and support this methodology, the following areas are discussed: (1) international regulatory frameworks and regional initiatives supporting the use of LNG as a marine fuel; (2) commercial and operational attributes that determine the competitiveness of LNG-fueled ships; and (3) challenges preventing the adoption of LNG as a marine fuel, including the uncertainties and less-quantifiable concerns expressed by the maritime operators. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Shehu E.,University of Hamburg | Hofmann A.,Hamburg School of Business Administration | Clement M.,University of Hamburg | Langmaack A.-C.,University of Hamburg
European Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2015

The objective of this paper is to quantify selection effects related to blood donation behavior and their impact on donors’ perceived health status. We rely on data from the 2009 and 2010 survey waves of the German socio-economic panel (N = 12,000), including information on health-related, demographic and psychographic factors as well as monetary donation behavior and volunteer work. We propose a propensity score matching approach to control for the healthy donor effect related to the health requirements for active blood donations. We estimate two separate models and quantify selection biases between (1) active and inactive blood donors and (2) active donors and non-donors. Our results reveal that active donors are more satisfied with their health status; after controlling for selection effects, however, the differences become non-significant, revealing selection biases of up to 82 % compared with non-donors. These differences also exist between active and inactive donors, but the differences are less distinct. Our methodological approach reveals and quantifies selection biases attributable to the healthy donor effect. These biases are substantial enough to lead to erroneous statistical artifacts, implying that researchers should rigorously control for selection biases when comparing the health outcomes of different blood donor groups. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Stefanakos C.,Sintef | Schinas O.,Hamburg School of Business Administration
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs | Year: 2015

This work explores the applicability of well-known fuzzy time series forecasting techniques for the prediction of bunker prices. These techniques have extensively been used with great success to the forecasting of stock prices. In the present work, weekly time series of bunker prices in four major world ports (Rotterdam, Houston, Singapore, and Fujairah) have been thoroughly examined and used for the verification of the forecasting performance of the fuzzy models. The following bunker types have been examined: 380cSt (high and low sulphur), 180cSt (high sulphur), marine diesel oil (MDO), and marine gas oil (MGO). To examine the forecasting accuracy, four error measures are used as an evaluation criterion to compare the forecasting performance of the listing models. Before applying the fuzzy forecasting procedure, and in order to remove nonstationarity, both differencing and moving-average are applied to the data. It has been found that all four error measures attain their minimum at the same point Mopt, which in turn gives the closer forecasts to the actual values. As the importance of fuel prices increases, effective forecasting could further benefit operators with compliance issues and financial planning as well as regulators estimating better the timing and the cost of regulation. © 2015, World Maritime University. Source

Schinas O.,Hamburg School of Business Administration | Stefanakos C.,Sintef
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2014

This paper aims to discuss the limitations of the financial assessment of technologies assisting compliance with the sulphur regulations of MARPOL Annex VI, which is commonly adhered to by operators, and to contribute a multi-criteria approach based on the analytic network process (ANP). Financial models like the representative one presented herein are widely used in the industry. The given example is analyzed in order to identify the merits and limitations of this approach. Thereafter, an analytical tool based on the ANP is presented. This could enhance understanding of the problem and support decisions. Furthermore, the tool could assist operators to select the necessary technical alternatives in a better way, and reveal the preferences and relationships among criteria, thus fostering improvement of the decision tools. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Schinas O.,Hamburg School of Business Administration | Dionelis C.,Hellenic Railways Organisation
Operations Research/ Computer Science Interfaces Series | Year: 2011

Currently most cargoes leave the terminal by road; in Europe, at least, this trend is not sustainable, and sea-rail and sea-river alternatives shall undertake more loads. The focus of this document lays in Europe, including policy and market trends in the European Union, however the problems and the potential solutions may have a global interest. In the text a thorough examination of policy developments in the fields of rail, inland waterways and intermodality is presented. Environmental issues are also discussed. The data from EUROSTAT is used as a basis for further analysis, where it is revealed that even if there is strong political support, it is questionable as to whether it is feasible to promote these links as soon as 2015 or even 2020. The concept of dry (inland) ports and their function in the canalization of cargoes is also analyzed in view of sea-rail and sea-river links. In the last section, all points are summarized and some recommendations are presented. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

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