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Hamamatsu, Japan

Fu D.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Oh S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Choi W.,Korea University | Yamauchi T.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

Traditional Normarski differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a very powerful method for imaging nonstained biological samples. However, one of its major limitations is the nonquantitative nature of the imaging. To overcome this problem, we developed a quantitative DIC microscopy method based on off-axis sample selfinterference. The digital holography algorithm is applied to obtain quantitative phase gradients in orthogonal directions, which leads to a quantitative phase image through a spiral integration of the phase gradients. This method is practically simple to implement on any standard microscope without stringent requirements on polarization optics. Optical sectioning can be obtained through enlarged illumination NA. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source

Iwai Y.,Hamamatsu Corporation
Laser Focus World | Year: 2011

Monolithic arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (APD) offer researchers a new tool in applications ranging from medical imaging to high-energy physics. One type of Geiger-mode APDs are multipixel implementations, known as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) as they are capable of counting multi-photon events, similar to traditional photo-multipliers (PMTs). It is possible to trigger on the multiphoton events and use them for multiphoton events and use them for timing measurements in this implementation. Applications, such as positron emission tomography (PET) that require large-area imagers are driving interest in larger arrays and increasing the demand for Geiger-mode APDs. Source

Kaufman K.,Hamamatsu Corporation
Spectroscopy (Santa Monica) | Year: 2010

Engineers have been improving the design and manufacturing of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors. The goal of these improvements has been to increase the sensitivity so that pixel size can be decreased while still being able to capture an image at the same, or even lower, light levels. The architecture of a CMOS chip differs from the CCD in that there is an amplifier for each photodiode. This is called an active pixel sensor because the amplifier is part of the pixel. Transistor switches connect each photodiode to the intrapixel amplifier at the time of readout. The pixel amplifier, switches, and signal lines are masked. The CMOS image sensor is read out serially and also has intrinsic noise. By using an optimized buried transistor design, the amplifier noise and the switching noise are reduced. By matching the gain in each amplifier through careful control, the fixed pattern noise is reduced. Other developments in the new CMOS sensor include a well capable of storing as many as 18,000 electrons. Source

Toyoda H.,Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Inoue T.,Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Mukozaka N.,Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Hara T.,Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Wu M.H.,Hamamatsu Corporation
Digest of Technical Papers - SID International Symposium | Year: 2014

A high quality and high performance 2D Spatial Light Phase Modulator has been developed for wide range of basic and practical applications. We will discuss how LCOS micro-display device is developed into LCOS-SLM for various important non-display applications ranging from basic and applied researches such as singular optics and fluorescence microscopy to industrial applications in laser processing and machining. © 2014 Society for Information Display. Source

Gilmore J.,Hamamatsu Corporation
Photonics Spectra | Year: 2011

Several measures that need to be considered when selecting detector for Raman spectroscopy are presented. Manufacturers who own a foundry tend to have better quality control over the CCD manufacturing process compared with those who outsource. The foundry enables optimizing the wafer processing conditions to reduce the dark current that is important for Raman spectroscopy. The back-thinned CCD (BT-CCD) is well suited for low light detection because their quantum efficiency (QE) reaches 90 percent at the peak wavelength. Laser treatment of the BT-CCD can further increase the QE in the red and near-IR regions. An effective technique to reduce etaloning is to create irregular patterns at the origin of reflection, preventing the light from reflecting back into the active region. A transmission mode grating with a fiber-coupled entrance slit enables designers to achieve high optical throughput and narrow optical resolution. Source

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