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Asgari G.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Roshani B.,University of Saskatchewan | Ghanizadeh G.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University
Journal of Hazardous Materials

In this research work, pumice that is functionalized by the cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA), is used as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. This work was carried out in two parts. The effects of HDTMA loading, pH (3-10), reaction time (5-60min) and the adsorbent dosage (0.15-2.5gL -1) were investigated on the removal of fluoride as a target contaminate from water through the design of different experimental sets in the first part. The results from this first part revealed that surfactant-modified pumice (SMP) exhibited the best performance at dose 0.5gL -1, pH 6, and it adsorbs over 96% of fluoride from a solution containing 10mgL -1 fluoride after 30min of mixing time. The four linear forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms model were applied to determine the best fit of equilibrium expressions. Apart from the regression coefficient (R 2), four error functions were used to validate the isotherm and kinetics data. The experimental adsorption isotherm complies with Langmuir equation model type 1. The maximum amount of adsorption (Q max) was 41mgg -1. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of fluoride best fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic type 1. Thermodynamic parameters evaluation of fluoride adsorption on SMP showed that the adsorption process under the selected conditions was spontaneous and endothermic. The suitability of SMP in defluoridation at field condition was investigated with natural groundwater samples collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area in the second part of this study. Based on this study's results, SMP was shown to be an affordable and a promising option for the removal of fluoride in drinking water. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bikmoradi A.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Medical education

CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance. Source

Poorolajal J.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs) wane over time after vaccination for hepatitis B (HB); hence, the duration of protection provided by the vaccine is still unknown but may be evaluated indirectly by measuring the anamnestic immune response to booster doses of vaccine. To assess the benefits and harms of booster dose hepatitis B vaccination for preventing HB infection. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 4, 2010) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, conference databases, and reference lists of articles to May 2010. We also contacted authors of articles and manufacturers. Randomised clinical trials addressing anamnestic immune response to booster of HB vaccine five years or more after primary vaccination in apparently healthy participants, vaccinated in a 3-dose or 4-dose schedules of HB vaccine without receiving additional dose or immunoglobulin. Two authors made the decisions if the identified publications on studies met the inclusion criteria or not. Primary outcome measures included the proportion with anamnestic immune response in non-protected participants and signs of hepatitis B virus infection. Secondary outcomes were the proportion with local and systemic adverse event events developed following booster dose injection. Weighted proportion were planned to be reported with 95% confidence intervals. There were no eligible randomised clinical trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria of this review. We were unable to identify randomised clinical trials on the topic. We need randomised clinical trials to formulate future booster policies for preventing hepatitis B infection. Source

Emami S.F.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology

Introduction: The daf is a large Persian frame drum used as a musical instrument in both popular and classical music which can induce a percussive sound at low frequencies (146-290 Hz) with peaks of up to 130 dBspl. The percussive sounds have a power distribution in the region of saccular sensitivity. In view of the saccular stimulation by sound in humans, we decided to use cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to evaluate the possibility that the daf music may have a disturbing effect on saccular function. Materials and Methods: During this case-control study, 18 daf musicians were compared with 20 healthy individuals evaluated in the audiology department of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Assessment consisted of pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and cVEMPs. Results: Multiple comparisons of mean the cVEMPs and mean hearing loss at 250 Hz among the three groups (affected, unaffected, and normal ears) were significant. There were no significant differences between all daf players on high-tone loss at 3000 Hz. The daf musicians had bilateral unsymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), with hearing loss at 250 Hz (low-tone loss) and notched audiogram at 3000 Hz (high-tone loss). Eleven musicians with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs had mild (26-40 dBHL) low-tone loss and significant abnormal cVEMPs findings. In contrast, the others had slight (16-25 dBHL) low-tone loss with normal cVEMPs. Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction. Conclusion: Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction. Source

Saremi H.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery

Tears of the subscapularis tendon have been significantly recognized as a source of shoulder pain and dysfunction in the past decade, thanks to arthroscopic evaluation of the shoulder and biomechanical and anatomical studies of the tendon. Current classification of subscapularis tendon tear is based on insertion site of the tendon. Recently, a classification for non-insertional types of subscapularis tendon tear has been published. Interstitial tear of subscapularis tendon has not been described in classifications available in the literature. This report describes significant interstitial tear of the subscapularis tendon. This tear looks normal in superior, bursal and articular sides. Then its specific arthroscopic findings as "Air bag sign" and repair technique of the pathology is explained. ©BY THE ARCHIVES OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY. Source

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