Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

Hamadan, Iran
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Hasanein P.,Bu - Ali Sina University | Shahidi S.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2010

Learning and memory deficits occur in diabetes mellitus. Although the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment in diabetes has not been fully elucidated, factors such as metabolic impairments, vascular complications and oxidative stress are thought to play possible roles. Here we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with vitamin C (50. mg/kg, p.o), vitamin E (100. mg/kg, p.o) and both together on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in male Wistar control and diabetic rats. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. Passive avoidance learning was assessed 30. days later. Retention was tested 24. h after training. At the end, animals were weighed and blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose measurement. Diabetes caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes of PAL and memory. The combination of vitamin C and E improved learning and memory in controls and reversed learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats. Combined treatment also affected the body weight and plasma glucose level of diabetic treated animals compared to untreated diabetic animals. Hypoglycemic effects and antioxidant properties of the vitamins may be involved in the nootropic effect of such treatment. These results show that combined treatment with vitamins C and E improved PAL and memory of control rats. In addition, combined vitamins administration to rats for 30. days from onset of diabetes alleviated the negative influence of diabetes on learning and memory. Therefore, combined vitamins treatment may provide a new potential alternative for prevention of impaired cognitive functions associated with diabetes and may warrant further clinical study. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Shahidi S.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Hasanein P.,Bu - Ali Sina University
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2011

Chronic morphine exposure causes tolerance and dependence. The cessation of morphine consumption induces a withdrawal syndrome that may involve cannabinoids and is characterized by undesirable psychological and physical signs. The present study examined whether augmentation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase could suppress the morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine dependency was induced by 7 consecutive days of morphine injection. The morphine-addicted rats received URB597 (1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03. mg/kg), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, before the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone. Withdrawal symptoms including jumping, teeth chattering, paw tremor, wet dog shakes, face grooming, penis licking, standing, rearing, sniffing and percent of weight loss were recorded during 30. min after naloxone injection. The results showed that the morphine withdrawal precipitated rats had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control rats and the administration of URB597 (all doses except 0.03. mg/kg) reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. We conclude that the administration of URB597 modulated morphine withdrawal symptoms. This finding shows that endocannabinoids interact with the opioid system during the morphine withdrawal period and that potentiation of the endogenous cannabinoid system by URB597 may be a new target strategy for the management of morphine addiction. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Heshmati A.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Milani J.M.,Iran University of Science and Technology
Food Control | Year: 2010

In this study the levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in UHT milk samples were determined in May, August and November and February. Two hundred and ten UHT milk samples were obtained from supermarkets in Tehran, Iran. The occurrence and concentration range of AFM1 in the samples were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) method. AFM1 was found in 116 (55.2%) of 210 UHT milk samples examined. The levels of AFM1 in 70 (33.3%) samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 μg/l) accepted by some European countries while none of the samples exceeded the prescribed limit of US regulations. The highest mean concentration of AFM1 was recorded in February (0.087 μg/l). The lowest mean concentration of AFM1 was recorded in August (0.021 μg/l). Statistical evaluation showed that there were significant difference (P < 0.01) between the mean concentrations of AFM1 of UHT milk samples taken in February with May and August. AFM1 contents of milk samples taken in February were not higher than UHT milk samples taken in November (P < 0.01). The AFM1 incidence of exceeding legal limit in UHT milk samples (33.3%) was relatively much higher than some other countries. It was therefore concluded that, the levels of AFM1 in UHT milk samples consumed in Iran were high and seemed to pose a threat to public health. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Saremi H.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery | Year: 2016

Tears of the subscapularis tendon have been significantly recognized as a source of shoulder pain and dysfunction in the past decade, thanks to arthroscopic evaluation of the shoulder and biomechanical and anatomical studies of the tendon. Current classification of subscapularis tendon tear is based on insertion site of the tendon. Recently, a classification for non-insertional types of subscapularis tendon tear has been published. Interstitial tear of subscapularis tendon has not been described in classifications available in the literature. This report describes significant interstitial tear of the subscapularis tendon. This tear looks normal in superior, bursal and articular sides. Then its specific arthroscopic findings as "Air bag sign" and repair technique of the pathology is explained. ©BY THE ARCHIVES OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY.

Emami S.F.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2014

Introduction: The daf is a large Persian frame drum used as a musical instrument in both popular and classical music which can induce a percussive sound at low frequencies (146-290 Hz) with peaks of up to 130 dBspl. The percussive sounds have a power distribution in the region of saccular sensitivity. In view of the saccular stimulation by sound in humans, we decided to use cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to evaluate the possibility that the daf music may have a disturbing effect on saccular function. Materials and Methods: During this case-control study, 18 daf musicians were compared with 20 healthy individuals evaluated in the audiology department of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Assessment consisted of pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and cVEMPs. Results: Multiple comparisons of mean the cVEMPs and mean hearing loss at 250 Hz among the three groups (affected, unaffected, and normal ears) were significant. There were no significant differences between all daf players on high-tone loss at 3000 Hz. The daf musicians had bilateral unsymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), with hearing loss at 250 Hz (low-tone loss) and notched audiogram at 3000 Hz (high-tone loss). Eleven musicians with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs had mild (26-40 dBHL) low-tone loss and significant abnormal cVEMPs findings. In contrast, the others had slight (16-25 dBHL) low-tone loss with normal cVEMPs. Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction. Conclusion: Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction.

Sangestani G.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Khatiban M.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Nurse Education Today | Year: 2013

Background: Lecturing is the most common teaching method in the medical education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the active and student-oriented learning strategies which have gained attention in the recent decades. Objective: To compare the effect of PBL and lecture-based learning (LBL) on the satisfaction and learning progress of undergraduate midwifery students. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Settings: Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran. Participants: Fifty-six undergraduate midwifery students in two different classes participated in the study. Methods: Randomly, one class (experimental group) received PBL in addition to LBL and the other one (control group) received traditional LBL. "Pregnancy and childbirth", a 2-credit course, was selected for this purpose. Scientific pre-test and post-tests were performed and satisfaction questionnaire was filled in for both groups. A questionnaire to compare PBL and LBL was filled in only for the experimental group. The instruments used in the study were "Demographic data form", "Students' learning progress test", "Student's satisfaction of teaching method", and the "Teaching method evaluation". Results: Learning progress in PBL group was significantly more than control group. PBL improved application of theory lesson in clinical practice, increased learning motivation and enhanced educational activity in class. There was more satisfaction with PBL method. There was no relationship between the students' satisfaction and learning progress. 81.8% of students considered PBL the more suitable and better method. Conclusion: PBL should be applied more in undergraduate midwifery courses. According to these advantages, the quality of midwifery education can be improved via this method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Bikmoradi A.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Medical education | Year: 2010

CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance.

Asgari G.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Roshani B.,University of Saskatchewan | Ghanizadeh G.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

In this research work, pumice that is functionalized by the cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA), is used as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. This work was carried out in two parts. The effects of HDTMA loading, pH (3-10), reaction time (5-60min) and the adsorbent dosage (0.15-2.5gL -1) were investigated on the removal of fluoride as a target contaminate from water through the design of different experimental sets in the first part. The results from this first part revealed that surfactant-modified pumice (SMP) exhibited the best performance at dose 0.5gL -1, pH 6, and it adsorbs over 96% of fluoride from a solution containing 10mgL -1 fluoride after 30min of mixing time. The four linear forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms model were applied to determine the best fit of equilibrium expressions. Apart from the regression coefficient (R 2), four error functions were used to validate the isotherm and kinetics data. The experimental adsorption isotherm complies with Langmuir equation model type 1. The maximum amount of adsorption (Q max) was 41mgg -1. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of fluoride best fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic type 1. Thermodynamic parameters evaluation of fluoride adsorption on SMP showed that the adsorption process under the selected conditions was spontaneous and endothermic. The suitability of SMP in defluoridation at field condition was investigated with natural groundwater samples collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area in the second part of this study. Based on this study's results, SMP was shown to be an affordable and a promising option for the removal of fluoride in drinking water. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

PURPOSE:: To examine an association between high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients with high myopic anisometropia. METHODS:: A total of 116 white diabetic patients (232 eyes) with high myopia (spherical equivalent > −5.00 diopters, D) anisometropia (difference ≥ −6 D) were enrolled in this cross-sectional, contralateral eye study. The frequency of DR was compared between the high myopic and the contralateral eyes. RESULTS:: Compared with the fellow eyes, DR was significantly less frequent in high myopic side (27.6% vs. 100%, P < 0.001; relative risk, 0.28 with 95% confidence interval of 0.21–0.37). Similar significant trends were found for the incidence of nonproliferative (27.6% vs. 69%, P < 0.001) and proliferative DR (0% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). Diabetic retinopathy was also less severe in the same group. CONCLUSION:: Using a contralateral eye study design prevented the influence of potential confounding factors inherent in similar previous case–control studies. On this basis, a protective role for high myopia against DR was established. © 2016 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.

Irani S.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose: One of the most striking qualities of cancer is its spread throughout the body. The location of a metastatic mass may help to identify the primary tumor. Metastases to head and neck area can occur either from local structures or from distant organs. Materials and methods: This study was a retrospective review of patients from a University Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the period 1992 to 2008. The data were analyzed for sex, age, primary site of tumors, metastatic site, and histology of the tumors. The tumors were classified into 2 groups: intraoral and extraoral. Results: A total of 191 cases were found; of these, 118 (62%) were men and 73 (38%) were women. The most common intraoral primary site was tongue (anterior and posterior parts). Thyroid gland was the most frequent primary extraoral site. The most frequent metastatic site was the lymph node, and level II most commonly involved lymph nodes, followed by level I. Conclusion: Metastases are an infrequent finding in head and neck region and they may represent the initial manifestation of the disease. Diagnostic evaluation of metastatic lesion will detect the primary tumor. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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