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Khazaei S.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of death, especially in developed countries. The human development index (HDI) and its dimensions seem correlated with incidence and mortality rates of PC. This study aimed to assess the association of the specific components of HDI (life expectancy at birth, education, gross national income per 1000 capita, health, and living standards) with burden indicators of PC worldwide.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information of the incidence and mortality rates of PC was obtained from the GLOBOCAN cancer project in year 2012 and data about the HDI 2013 were obtained from the World Bank database. The correlation between incidence, mortality rates, and the HDI parameters were assessed using STATA software.RESULTS: A significant inequality of PC incidence rates was observed according to concentration indexes=0.25 with 95% CI (0.22, 0.34) and a negative mortality concentration index of -0.04 with 95% CI (-0.09, 0.01) was observed.CONCLUSIONS: A positive significant correlation was detected between the incidence rates of PC and the HDI and its dimensions including life expectancy at birth, education, income, urbanization level and obesity. However, there was a negative significant correlation between the standardized mortality rates and the life expectancy, income and HDI.


Heshmati A.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Milani J.M.,Iran University of Science and Technology
Food Control | Year: 2010

In this study the levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in UHT milk samples were determined in May, August and November and February. Two hundred and ten UHT milk samples were obtained from supermarkets in Tehran, Iran. The occurrence and concentration range of AFM1 in the samples were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) method. AFM1 was found in 116 (55.2%) of 210 UHT milk samples examined. The levels of AFM1 in 70 (33.3%) samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 μg/l) accepted by some European countries while none of the samples exceeded the prescribed limit of US regulations. The highest mean concentration of AFM1 was recorded in February (0.087 μg/l). The lowest mean concentration of AFM1 was recorded in August (0.021 μg/l). Statistical evaluation showed that there were significant difference (P < 0.01) between the mean concentrations of AFM1 of UHT milk samples taken in February with May and August. AFM1 contents of milk samples taken in February were not higher than UHT milk samples taken in November (P < 0.01). The AFM1 incidence of exceeding legal limit in UHT milk samples (33.3%) was relatively much higher than some other countries. It was therefore concluded that, the levels of AFM1 in UHT milk samples consumed in Iran were high and seemed to pose a threat to public health. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Saremi H.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery | Year: 2016

Tears of the subscapularis tendon have been significantly recognized as a source of shoulder pain and dysfunction in the past decade, thanks to arthroscopic evaluation of the shoulder and biomechanical and anatomical studies of the tendon. Current classification of subscapularis tendon tear is based on insertion site of the tendon. Recently, a classification for non-insertional types of subscapularis tendon tear has been published. Interstitial tear of subscapularis tendon has not been described in classifications available in the literature. This report describes significant interstitial tear of the subscapularis tendon. This tear looks normal in superior, bursal and articular sides. Then its specific arthroscopic findings as "Air bag sign" and repair technique of the pathology is explained. ©BY THE ARCHIVES OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY.


Emami S.F.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2014

Introduction: The daf is a large Persian frame drum used as a musical instrument in both popular and classical music which can induce a percussive sound at low frequencies (146-290 Hz) with peaks of up to 130 dBspl. The percussive sounds have a power distribution in the region of saccular sensitivity. In view of the saccular stimulation by sound in humans, we decided to use cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to evaluate the possibility that the daf music may have a disturbing effect on saccular function. Materials and Methods: During this case-control study, 18 daf musicians were compared with 20 healthy individuals evaluated in the audiology department of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Assessment consisted of pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and cVEMPs. Results: Multiple comparisons of mean the cVEMPs and mean hearing loss at 250 Hz among the three groups (affected, unaffected, and normal ears) were significant. There were no significant differences between all daf players on high-tone loss at 3000 Hz. The daf musicians had bilateral unsymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), with hearing loss at 250 Hz (low-tone loss) and notched audiogram at 3000 Hz (high-tone loss). Eleven musicians with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs had mild (26-40 dBHL) low-tone loss and significant abnormal cVEMPs findings. In contrast, the others had slight (16-25 dBHL) low-tone loss with normal cVEMPs. Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction. Conclusion: Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction.


Shahidi S.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Hashemi-Firouzi N.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2014

Withdrawal from opioids leads to the expression of aversion behaviors. Previous studies have shown that the serotonergic system has an important role in morphine withdrawal syndrome. The 5-HT7 receptor is a recently discovered member of the 5-HT receptor family that has been shown to be involved in these behaviors. The aim of the present study was to test the role of the 5-HT7 receptor in withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice with AS19 and SB269970, a selective agonist and antagonist of this receptor, respectively. Dependence was induced by the repeated administration of morphine for five consecutive days. The morphine-dependent mice received AS19 (3, 5, or 10. mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or SB269970 (1, 3, or 10. mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 15. min prior to the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone (3. mg/kg, subcutaneous). Withdrawal symptoms, including percent weight loss, jumping, teeth chattering, writhing, body and face grooming, sniffing, standing, and head and limb shaking, were recorded for 30. min after the naloxone injection. The morphine-dependent mice had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control mice. The administration of AS19 reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. However, SB2699 increased some of the withdrawal symptoms, including teeth chattering, face grooming, jumping, and head and limb shaking. These findings suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in morphine withdrawal. Its activation decreased and its inactivation increased the morphine withdrawal syndrome. Further studies are recommended to better understand the role of the 5-HT7 receptor in morphine dependence and withdrawal. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Sangestani G.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Khatiban M.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Nurse Education Today | Year: 2013

Background: Lecturing is the most common teaching method in the medical education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the active and student-oriented learning strategies which have gained attention in the recent decades. Objective: To compare the effect of PBL and lecture-based learning (LBL) on the satisfaction and learning progress of undergraduate midwifery students. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Settings: Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran. Participants: Fifty-six undergraduate midwifery students in two different classes participated in the study. Methods: Randomly, one class (experimental group) received PBL in addition to LBL and the other one (control group) received traditional LBL. "Pregnancy and childbirth", a 2-credit course, was selected for this purpose. Scientific pre-test and post-tests were performed and satisfaction questionnaire was filled in for both groups. A questionnaire to compare PBL and LBL was filled in only for the experimental group. The instruments used in the study were "Demographic data form", "Students' learning progress test", "Student's satisfaction of teaching method", and the "Teaching method evaluation". Results: Learning progress in PBL group was significantly more than control group. PBL improved application of theory lesson in clinical practice, increased learning motivation and enhanced educational activity in class. There was more satisfaction with PBL method. There was no relationship between the students' satisfaction and learning progress. 81.8% of students considered PBL the more suitable and better method. Conclusion: PBL should be applied more in undergraduate midwifery courses. According to these advantages, the quality of midwifery education can be improved via this method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bikmoradi A.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Medical education | Year: 2010

CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance.


Asgari G.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Roshani B.,University of Saskatchewan | Ghanizadeh G.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

In this research work, pumice that is functionalized by the cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA), is used as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. This work was carried out in two parts. The effects of HDTMA loading, pH (3-10), reaction time (5-60min) and the adsorbent dosage (0.15-2.5gL -1) were investigated on the removal of fluoride as a target contaminate from water through the design of different experimental sets in the first part. The results from this first part revealed that surfactant-modified pumice (SMP) exhibited the best performance at dose 0.5gL -1, pH 6, and it adsorbs over 96% of fluoride from a solution containing 10mgL -1 fluoride after 30min of mixing time. The four linear forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms model were applied to determine the best fit of equilibrium expressions. Apart from the regression coefficient (R 2), four error functions were used to validate the isotherm and kinetics data. The experimental adsorption isotherm complies with Langmuir equation model type 1. The maximum amount of adsorption (Q max) was 41mgg -1. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of fluoride best fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic type 1. Thermodynamic parameters evaluation of fluoride adsorption on SMP showed that the adsorption process under the selected conditions was spontaneous and endothermic. The suitability of SMP in defluoridation at field condition was investigated with natural groundwater samples collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area in the second part of this study. Based on this study's results, SMP was shown to be an affordable and a promising option for the removal of fluoride in drinking water. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PURPOSE:: To examine an association between high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients with high myopic anisometropia. METHODS:: A total of 116 white diabetic patients (232 eyes) with high myopia (spherical equivalent > −5.00 diopters, D) anisometropia (difference ≥ −6 D) were enrolled in this cross-sectional, contralateral eye study. The frequency of DR was compared between the high myopic and the contralateral eyes. RESULTS:: Compared with the fellow eyes, DR was significantly less frequent in high myopic side (27.6% vs. 100%, P < 0.001; relative risk, 0.28 with 95% confidence interval of 0.21–0.37). Similar significant trends were found for the incidence of nonproliferative (27.6% vs. 69%, P < 0.001) and proliferative DR (0% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). Diabetic retinopathy was also less severe in the same group. CONCLUSION:: Using a contralateral eye study design prevented the influence of potential confounding factors inherent in similar previous case–control studies. On this basis, a protective role for high myopia against DR was established. © 2016 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.


Irani S.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose: One of the most striking qualities of cancer is its spread throughout the body. The location of a metastatic mass may help to identify the primary tumor. Metastases to head and neck area can occur either from local structures or from distant organs. Materials and methods: This study was a retrospective review of patients from a University Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the period 1992 to 2008. The data were analyzed for sex, age, primary site of tumors, metastatic site, and histology of the tumors. The tumors were classified into 2 groups: intraoral and extraoral. Results: A total of 191 cases were found; of these, 118 (62%) were men and 73 (38%) were women. The most common intraoral primary site was tongue (anterior and posterior parts). Thyroid gland was the most frequent primary extraoral site. The most frequent metastatic site was the lymph node, and level II most commonly involved lymph nodes, followed by level I. Conclusion: Metastases are an infrequent finding in head and neck region and they may represent the initial manifestation of the disease. Diagnostic evaluation of metastatic lesion will detect the primary tumor. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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