Halle (Saale), Germany
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Schwartz M.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Peglow F.,Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research | Fritsch M.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Fritsch M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gunther J.,Halle Institute for Economic Research
Technovation | Year: 2012

Using a large dataset of 406 subsidized R&D cooperation projects, we provide detailed insights into the relationship between project characteristics and innovation output. Patent applications and publications are used as measures for the innovation output of an R&D project. We find that large-firm involvement is strongly positively related with the number of patent applications, but not with the number of publications. Conversely, university involvement has positive effects on projects' innovation output in terms of the number of publications but not in terms of patent applications. In general, projects' funding as measure of projects' size is an important predictor of the innovation output of R&D cooperation projects. No significant effects are found for the number of partners as (an alternative) measure of projects' size, for spatial proximity between cooperation partners, for the involvement of a public institute for applied research, and for prior cooperation experiences. We derive conclusions for the design of R&D cooperation support schemes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Schwartz M.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Schwartz M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hornych C.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Hornych C.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Technovation | Year: 2010

The article examines cooperation patterns of 150 firms located in German business incubators (BIs). More specifically, this study distinguishes between networking within the tenant portfolio and the academicindustry linkages of the tenant firms. We further contribute to the relevant literature by explicitly considering differences in cooperation patterns between firms located on diversified and specialized incubator facilities. Empirical results do not support the common assumption that specialized incubation strategies increase the effectiveness of incubator-internal networking compared to diversified BIs. Also, incubator specialization is not superior to diversified incubators with respect to the promotion of linkages of their tenants with academic institutions. For academic linkages, industry effects matter more than incubator characteristics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Michelsen C.,German Institute for Economic Research | Rosenschon S.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Schulz C.,Halle Institute for Economic Research
Energy Economics | Year: 2015

The energy efficiency of the residential housing stock plays a key role in strategies to mitigate climate change and global warming. In this context, it is frequently argued that private investment and the quality of thermal upgrades are too low in the light of the challenges faced and the potential energy cost savings. While many authors address the potential barriers for investors to increase energy efficiency, studies on the capabilities of different investors to reduce energy requirements of their property are scarce. This study investigates potential advantages of housing company's size, i.e. economies of scale, economies of scope and institutional learning in thermal upgrades of residential housing. Based on unique data on energy consumption in 102,307 apartment buildings in Germany, we present new evidence for the advantages and disadvantages of a housing company's size in "green" retrofitting projects. Our estimations show, that large housing companies outperform private landlords by far in high effort refurbishment projects. In contrast, private landlords appear to have advantages in low effort, incremental refurbishment activities. We demonstrate that a substantial share of the advantages of larger firms can be associated with specialization (i.e. repeated projects). The results offer new options for policy makers to refine the support schemes toward a low carbon housing stock. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Claudy M.C.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Michelsen C.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | O'Driscoll A.,Dublin Institute of Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This study presents empirical insight into willingness to pay (WTP) for microgeneration technologies and the relative influence of subjective consumer perceptions. First, we apply a double-bounded contingent valuation method to elicit Irish home owners' WTP for micro wind turbines, wood pellet boilers, solar panels and solar water heaters. Utilizing findings from the adoption of innovation literature, in a second step we assess the influence of antecedents on WTP for each of the four technologies, including (1) home owners' perception of product characteristics, (2) normative influences and (3) sociodemographic characteristics. Our results show that WTP varies significantly among the four technologies. More importantly, however, home owners hold different beliefs about the respective technologies, which significantly influence their WTP. The results provide valuable information for marketers and policy makers aiming to promote microgeneration technologies more effectively in consumer markets. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kauffmann A.,Halle Institute for Economic Research
Urban Studies | Year: 2016

The ‘Central German Metropolitan Region’ is a network of cities and their surroundings, located in the three East-German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. It was founded to bring the bundled strengths of these cities into an inter-municipal cooperation, for making use of the possible advantages of a polycentric region. As theory claims, a precondition for gains from polycentricity is spatial integration of the region. In particular, markets for high skilled labour should be integrated. To assess how this precondition is fulfilled in Central Germany, in the framework of a doubly constrained gravity model the commuting relations between the functional regions of the (until 2013) 11 core cities of the network are analysed. In particular for higher educated employees, the results display that commuting relations are determined not only by distance, but also by the state borders that cross the area. © 2015, © Urban Studies Journal Limited 2015.


Dettmann E.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Becker C.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Schmeisser C.,Halle Institute for Economic Research
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

The development of 'standards' for the application of matching algorithms in empirical evaluation studies is still an outstanding goal. The first step of the matching procedure is the choice of an appropriate distance function. In empirical evaluation situations often the sample sizes are small. Moreover, they consist of variables with different scale levels which have to be considered explicitly in the matching process. A simulation is performed which is directed towards these empirical challenges and supplements former studies in this respect. The choice of the analysed distance functions is determined by the results of former theoretical studies and recommendations in the empirical literature. Thus, two balancing scores (the propensity score and the index score) and the Mahalanobis distance are considered. Additionally, aggregated statistical distance functions not yet used for empirical evaluation are included. The matching outcomes are compared using non-parametric scale-specific tests for identical distributions of the characteristics in the treatment and the control groups. The simulation results show that, in small samples, aggregated statistical distance functions are the better choice for summarising similarities in differently scaled variables compared to the commonly used measures. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Franz P.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Hornych C.,Halle Institute for Economic Research
Urban Studies | Year: 2010

The rising focus of politicians as well as scientists in the EU on the large urban agglomerations as centres of economic growth is accompanied by political efforts to identify and to demarcate such agglomerations under the label 'metropolitan regionsa'. This study develops a theoretical framework broaching the issue of cooperation between municipalities from the perspective of regional economics as well as political science. The framework is applied to the empirical case of the polycentric metropolitan region of the 'Saxony trianglea' in east Germany. The results show that various intervening factors prevent intense co-operation between the actors in the region. Policy implications and conclusions for future research are discussed.


Schwartz M.,Halle Institute for Economic Research
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2013

It is widely unclear as to whether start-up firms supported by publicly-initiated incubator initiatives have higher survival rates than comparable start-up firms that have not received support by such initiatives. This paper contributes to the underlying discussion by performing a large-scale matched-pairs analysis of the long-term survival of 371 incubator firms (after their graduation) from five German incubators and a control group of 371 comparable non-incubated firms. The analysis covers a 10-year time span. To account for the problem of selection bias, a non-parametric matching approach is applied to identify an appropriate control group. For neither of the five incubator locations, we find statistically significant higher survival probabilities for firms located in incubators compared to firms located outside those incubator organizations. For three incubator locations the analysis reveals statistically significant lower chances of survival for those start-ups receiving support by an incubator. The empirical results, therefore, raise some doubts regarding the impacts of incubation on long-term firm survival. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Schwartz M.,Halle Institute for Economic Research
Growth and Change | Year: 2011

Local economic development policies worldwide perceive business incubation as an effective measure to promote regional growth through the support of young and innovative ventures. The common assumption is that incubation promotes firm growth, in particular after these firms graduated from their incubator organisations. However, knowledge regarding the performance of incubated ventures after they have (successfully) completed their incubation is almost non-existent. This article investigates the long-term development of 324 graduate firms from five German business incubators (incubated between 1990 and 2006). The present study does not suffer from a survivor bias, meaning that performance data of non-surviving firms is also included. Using employment and sales measures as performance indicators, this study contradicts existing results with regard to long-term graduate performance. Findings of this paper do not support the presumption of sustainable and strong firm growth beyond incubation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Claudy M.C.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Michelsen C.,Halle Institute for Economic Research | Driscoll A.O.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Mullen M.R.,Florida Atlantic University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

Despite major policy and marketing efforts, the uptake of microgeneration technologies in most European countries remains low. Whereas most academic studies and policy reports aim to identify the underlying reasons why people buy these new technologies, they often fail to assess the general level of consumer awareness. The process of adopting an innovation, however, shows that awareness is a prerequisite which needs to be understood before adoption can be addressed. This paper takes a closer look at awareness of microgeneration and presents the results from a nationally representative study conducted in the Republic of Ireland. Findings from logistic regressions clearly indicate that awareness varies significantly between the individual technologies and customer segments. The paper concludes with implications for policy makers and marketers aiming to promote microgeneration technologies in consumer markets. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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