Foth M.,Health Science University |
Schusterschitz C.,Hall University of Applied Sciences |
Flatscher-Thoni M.,Health Science University
Journal of Public Health (Germany) | Year: 2012
Aim: Data-protection regulations in German hospitals, based on data-protection laws and internal regulations, must be complied with and taken into account in daily work. However, these regulations are not always respected, as evidenced by the data-protection scandals in Germany of recent years. Subjects and methods: In a 2010 survey, data was collected from 557 individuals including administrative staff, nursing staff, physicians, physicians with scientific/research-based work and other health professionals of 26 hospitals in Germany to analyze the factors of relevance with regard to data-protection compliance. Results: The acceptance of hospital staff concerning dataprotection regulations is significantly influenced by subjective values and personal attitudes. Significant differences related to the acceptance of data-protection rules and regulations can be found in gender or type of hospital. The results show that employees consider rules and regulations to be necessary and important. However damage caused by data security breaches and the likelihood that they will occur, are considered to be less significant. A large impact on individual data-protection compliance can be reported in the subjective norm, which is influenced by the effect of close colleagues and superiors. Conclusion: The underlying results of the study at hand demonstrate practical implications which can lead to a high degree of data-protection compliance in the future. The related aspects deserving future investigation of the possible explanations for differences in behavior related to data protection among various occupational groups in hospitals are discussed. Men and women exhibit very different levels of dataprotection acceptance, so future efforts to increase sensitivity and awareness of data-protection issues in employees require gender-specific approaches. Another issue that merits investigation is the source of the influence of hospital type on dataprotection compliance. © Springer-Verlag 2011.
van Gessel C.,Hall University of Applied Sciences
Zoo Biology | Year: 2015
Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lermer E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Streicher B.,Hall University of Applied Sciences |
Raue M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Frey D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Risk Analysis | Year: 2015
Recent findings on construal level theory (CLT) suggest that abstract thinking leads to a lower estimated probability of an event occurring compared to concrete thinking. We applied this idea to the risk context and explored the influence of construal level (CL) on the overestimation of small and underestimation of large probabilities for risk estimates concerning a vague target person (Study 1 and Study 3) and personal risk estimates (Study 2). We were specifically interested in whether the often-found overestimation of small probabilities could be reduced with abstract thinking, and the often-found underestimation of large probabilities was reduced with concrete thinking. The results showed that CL influenced risk estimates. In particular, a concrete mindset led to higher risk estimates compared to an abstract mindset for several adverse events, including events with small and large probabilities. This suggests that CL manipulation can indeed be used for improving the accuracy of lay people's estimates of small and large probabilities. Moreover, the results suggest that professional risk managers' risk estimates of common events (thus with a relatively high probability) could be improved by adopting a concrete mindset. However, the abstract manipulation did not lead managers to estimate extremely unlikely events more accurately. Potential reasons for different CL manipulation effects on risk estimates' accuracy between lay people and risk managers are discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Hall University of Applied Sciences | Entity website
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Beddow J.M.,Hall University of Applied Sciences |
Beddow J.M.,University of Minnesota |
Beddow J.M.,CSIRO |
Pardey P.G.,Hall University of Applied Sciences |
And 13 more authors.
Nature Plants | Year: 2015
Breeding new crop varieties with resistance to the biotic stresses that undermine crop yields is tantamount to increasing the amount and quality of biological capital in agriculture. However, the success of genes that confer resistance to pests induces a co-evolutionary response that depreciates the biological capital embodied in the crop, as pests evolve the capacity to overcome the crop's new defences. Thus, simply maintaining this biological capital, and the beneficial production and economic outcomes it bestows, requires continual reinvestment in new crop defences. Here we use observed and modelled data on stripe rust occurrence to gauge changes in the geographic spread of the disease over recent decades. We document a significant increase in the spread of stripe rust since 1960, with 88% of the world's wheat production now susceptible to infection. Using a probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation model we estimate that 5.47 million tonnes of wheat are lost to the pathogen each year, equivalent to a loss of US$979 million per year. Comparing the cost of developing stripe-rust-resistant varieties of wheat with the cost of stripe-rust-induced yield losses, we estimate that a sustained annual research investment of at least US$32 million into stripe rust resistance is economically justified. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.