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Campbell River, Canada

Child K.R.,University of Victoria | Darimont C.T.,University of Victoria | Darimont C.T.,Hakai Institute
Human Dimensions of Wildlife | Year: 2015

Despite its manifold implications, insight into what satisfactions hunters derive from trophy hunting has not been thoroughly investigated. We used a novel method to assess how common satisfaction might be from harvesting animals under different achievement contexts. We scored smile types—signals of emotion and satisfaction—in 2,791 online hunting photographs. We show that the odds of true “pleasure” smiles are greater when hunters pose: (a) with versus without prey, (b) with large versus small prey and, (c) with carnivores versus herbivores (among older men). We emerge with a generalizable achievement-oriented hypothesis to propose that the prospect of displaying large and/or dangerous prey at least in part underlies the behavior of many contemporary hunters. Given that achievement was also likely important among ancestral hunter-gatherers and remains so in contemporary cultural and commercial marketing contexts, management might benefit by increased attention to achievement satisfaction among hunters. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Harding J.M.S.,Simon Fraser University | Segal M.R.,Simon Fraser University | Reynolds J.D.,Simon Fraser University | Reynolds J.D.,Hakai Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Estuaries are amongst the world's most productive ecosystems, lying at the intersection between terrestrial and marine environments. They receive substantial inputs from adjacent landscapes but the importance of resource subsidies is not well understood. Here, we test hypotheses for the effects of both terrestrial- and salmon-derived resource subsidies on the diet (inferred from stable isotopes of muscle tissue), size and percent nitrogen of the softshell clam (Mya arenaria), a sedentary estuarine consumer. We examine how these relationships shift across natural gradients among 14 estuaries that vary in upstream watershed size and salmon density on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We also test how assimilation and response to subsidies vary at smaller spatial scales within estuaries. The depletion and enrichment of stable isotope ratios in soft-shell clam muscle tissue correlated with increasing upstream watershed size and salmon density, respectively. The effects of terrestrial- and salmon-derived subsidies were also strongest at locations near stream outlets. When we controlled for age of individual clams, there were larger individuals with higher percent nitrogen content in estuaries below larger watersheds, though this effect was limited to the depositional zones below river mouths. Pink salmon exhibited a stronger effect on isotope ratios of clams than chum salmon, which could reflect increased habitat overlap as spawning pink salmon concentrate in lower stream reaches, closer to intertidal clam beds. However, there were smaller clams in estuaries that had higher upstream pink salmon densities, possibly due to differences in habitat requirements. Our study highlights the importance of upstream resource subsidies to this bivalve species, but that individual responses to subsidies can vary at smaller scales within estuaries. © 2015 Harding et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Hunt B.P.V.,University of British Columbia | Hunt B.P.V.,Hakai Institute | Bonnet S.,Aix - Marseille University | Berthelot H.,Aix - Marseille University | And 3 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2016

In oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans, where strong stratification can limit the replenishment of surface nitrate, dinitrogen (N2) fixation by diazotrophs can represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) for primary production. The VAHINE (VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of fixed N2 in the south-wEst Pacific) experiment was designed to examine the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in such ecosystems. In austral summer 2013, three large (∼50m3) in situ mesocosms were deployed for 23 days in the New Caledonia lagoon, an ecosystem that typifies the low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll environment, to stimulate diazotroph production. The zooplankton component of the study aimed to measure the incorporation of DDN into zooplankton biomass, and assess the role of direct diazotroph grazing by zooplankton as a DDN uptake pathway. Inside the mesocosms, the diatom-diazotroph association (DDA) het-1 predominated during days 5-15 while the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria UCYN-C predominated during days 15-23. A Trichodesmium bloom was observed in the lagoon (outside the mesocosms) towards the end of the experiment. The zooplankton community was dominated by copepods (63% of total abundance) for the duration of the experiment. Using two-source N isotope mixing models we estimated a mean ∼28% contribution of DDN to zooplankton nitrogen biomass at the start of the experiment, indicating that the natural summer peak of N2 fixation in the lagoon was already contributing significantly to the zooplankton. Stimulation of N2 fixation in the mesocosms corresponded with a generally low-level enhancement of DDN contribution to zooplankton nitrogen biomass, but with a peak of ∼73% in mesocosm 1 following the UCYN-C bloom. qPCR analysis targeting four of the common diazotroph groups present in the mesocosms (Trichodesmium, het-1, het-2, UCYN-C) demonstrated that all four were ingested by copepod grazers, and that their abundance in copepod stomachs generally corresponded with their in situ abundance. 15N2 labelled grazing experiments therefore provided evidence for direct ingestion and assimilation of UCYN-C-derived N by the zooplankton, but not for het-1 and Trichodesmium, supporting an important role of secondary pathways of DDN to the zooplankton for the latter groups, i.e. DDN contributions to the dissolved N pool and uptake by nondiazotrophs. This study appears to provide the first evidence of direct UCYN-C grazing by zooplankton, and indicates that UCYN-C-derived N contributes significantly to the zooplankton food web in the New Caledonia lagoon through a combination of direct grazing and secondary pathways. © 2016 Author(s).

Thompson S.D.,University of Victoria | Nelson T.A.,University of Victoria | Giesbrecht I.,Hakai Institute | Frazer G.,Hakai Institute | Saunders S.C.,Natural Resources Canada
Applied Geography | Year: 2016

Traditionally, forest inventory and ecosystem mapping at local to regional scales rely on manual interpretation of aerial photographs, based on standardized, expert-driven classification schemes. These current approaches provide the information needed for forest ecosystem management but constrain the thematic and spatial resolution of mapping and are infrequently repeated. The goal of this research was to demonstrate the utility of an unsupervised, quantitative technique based on Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and multi-spectral satellite imagery for mapping local-scale ecosystems over a heterogeneous landscape of forested and non-forested ecosystems. We derived a range of metrics characterizing local terrain and vegetation from LiDAR and RapidEye imagery for Calvert and Hecate Islands, British Columbia. These metrics were used in a cluster analysis to classify and quantitatively characterize ecological units across the island. A total of 18 clusters were derived. The clusters were attributed with quantitative summary statistics from the remotely sensed data inputs and contextualized through comparison to ecological units delineated in a traditional expert-driven mapping method using aerial photographs. The 18 clusters describe ecosystems ranging from open shrublands to dense, productive forest and include a riparian zone and many wetter and wetland ecosystems. The clusters provide detailed, spatially-explicit information for characterizing the landscape as a mosaic of units defined by topography and vegetation structure. This study demonstrates that using various types of remotely sensed data in a quantitative classification can provide scientists and managers with multivariate information unique from that which results from traditional, expert-based ecosystem mapping methods. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Guan L.,University of Victoria | Dower J.F.,University of Victoria | McKinnell S.M.,North Pacific Marine Science Organization | Pepin P.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2015

The concentration and composition of the larval fish assemblage in the Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) has changed between the early 1980s (1980 and 1981) and the late 2000s (2007, 2009 and 2010). During both periods, the spring larval fish assemblages were dominated by pelagic species: Clupea pallasi (Pacific herring), Merluccius productus (Pacific hake), Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue) and Theragra chalcogramma (walleye Pollock). The average concentration of Merluccius productus, Theragra chalcogramma, Leuroglossus schmidti, and Sebastes spp. declined between the early 1980s and the late 2000s; in contrast, the absolute concentration and proportion of Pleuronectidae and several demersal fish taxa increased in the spring larval assemblage. Examination of the associations between larval fish assemblages and environmental fluctuations suggests that large-scale climate processes are potential contributors to variations in overall larval concentrations of the dominant taxa and assemblage composition in the Strait of Georgia. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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