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Feng Y.F.,Jiangnan University | Zhang M.,Jiangnan University | Jiang H.,Jiangnan University | Sun J.C.,Haitong Food Group Company
Drying Technology | Year: 2012

Microwave-assisted spouted bed (MSBD) drying of lettuce cubes was investigated experimentally. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process with spouting air temperature, microwave power level, and superficial air velocity. The dried product obtained was compared with that obtained using other drying technologies such as hot air drying, air spouted bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, and vacuum freeze drying. The comparison is based on the rehydration ratio, chlorophyll content of the product, color, and the drying time required. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Yan W.,Jiangnan University | Zhang M.,Jiangnan University | Huang L.-L.,Jiangnan University | Tang J.,Washington State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

Background: In commercial deep-fat frying of potato chips, the oil content of the final products ranges from 35 to 45 g 100 g-1 (wet basis). High-temperature frying may cause the formation of acrylamide, making the products unhealthy to the consumer. The aim of this research was to explore a new method, spouted bed microwave drying, to produce healthier puffed snack potato cubes as possible alternatives to oil-fried potato chips. The influence of drying conditions of the spouted bed microwave drying on puffing characteristics of potato cubes were studied and compared with the direct microwave and hot air drying method. Results: Tandem combination drying of microwave-enhanced spouted bed drying (MWSB) could achieve a good expansion ratio, breaking force and rehydration ratio. The puffing characteristics of potato cubes were significantly affected (P < 0.05) by moisture content before starting microwave power in spouted bed microwave drying, by microwave (MW) power, and by the original size of potato cubes. Conclusion: The optimum processing parameters were the moisture content at the start of microwave power (60%), the size of potato cubes (10-12 mm), and microwave power (2-2.5 W g-1) © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Islam M.N.,Jiangnan University | Zhang M.,Jiangnan University | Fang Z.,Curtin University Australia | Sun J.,Haitong Food Group Company
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2015

To reduce the size of ice crystals in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) contact ultrasound (300 W, 20 kHz) was applied during freezing and frozen storage. Stereomicroscopy was used to observe the ice crystal morphology, and DSC and NMR spectroscopy were performed to evaluate the water states in the samples. Results indicated that ultrasound irradiation initiated the nucleation of ice and reduced the mean size of ice crystals during freezing and frozen storage, and therefore improved the frozen product quality compared to the control samples. Most of the ice crystals in the ultrasound assisted frozen (UAF) samples were in the size range of 0-80 microns while that for the control samples were in the size range of 50-180 microns. SEM photos also proved that due to the application of ultrasound, the sizes of the ice crystals was reduced. This micro-scale information on the documentation of ice crystals will assist in understanding the ice crystal growth phenomena in an ultrasound assisted freezing process. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved. Source

Yan W.-Q.,Jiangnan University | Zhang M.,Jiangnan University | Huang L.-L.,Jiangnan University | Tang J.,Washington State University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Three different combined microwave (MW) drying methods were compared, namely microwave-assisted vacuum drying (MWVD), microwave-assisted freeze drying (MWFD), microwave-enhanced spouted bed drying (MWSD), in terms of drying rate, drying uniformity, product colour, rehydration ratio, retention of β-carotene and vitamin C, and energy consumption. The drying rate of MWVD and MWSD were much faster than that of MWFD. The largest drying rate was obtained in MWSD with 3.5 W g-1. In general, the colour of MWSD products was very uniform. Rehydration ratio of MWFD carrot pieces was almost the same as the freeze-dried (FD) products and better than MWVD and MWSD products. In addition, the highest retention of carotene and vitamin C was observed in MWFD carrot pieces. No significant differences were observed in carotene and vitamin C between MWVD and MWSD products. However, the energy consumption in MWFD was the highest. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source

Xin Y.,Jiangnan University | Zhang M.,Jiangnan University | Xu B.,Jiangnan University | Adhikari B.,University of Ballarat | Sun J.,Haitong Food Group Company
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2015

Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent developments in thermal (radio frequency, microwave and ohmic), non-thermal (high pressure, ultrasound and infrared) methods in blanching pretreatment. Recent developments in quick freezing technology (high pressure, dehydrofreezing and ultrasound-assisted) as applied to freezing of fruits and vegetables are also reviewed. The thermal and non-thermal blanching methods provide rapid and uniform heating; reduce the loss of soluble nutrients and minimize thermal damage compared to conventional hot water blanching. High pressure freezing seems to promote instantaneous and homogeneous ice nucleation in fruits and vegetables. Dehydrofreezing is capable of reducing the damage to plant texture by removal partial of water before freezing. Ultrasound-assisted freezing is found to be effective in the initiation of nuclei and subsequent growth of crystals. More fundamental researches are needed for better design and scale up, so that these technologies can be transferred from laboratory to industry. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. Source

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