Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO

Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO

Port-au-Prince, Haiti

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Devieux J.G.,Florida International University | Saxena A.,Florida International University | Rosenberg R.,Florida International University | Klausner J.D.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. Methods: A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. Results: The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing "the best age to perform MMC" as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Conclusion: Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies with larger and more representative samples are needed to confirm this finding. © 2015 Dévieux et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Koenig S.P.,Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO | Koenig S.P.,Harvard University | Bernard D.,Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO | Devieux J.G.,Florida International University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: High attrition during the period from HIV testing to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is widely reported. Though treatment guidelines have changed to broaden ART eligibility and services have been widely expanded over the past decade, data on the temporal trends in pre-ART outcomes are limited; such data would be useful to guide future policy decisions. Methods: We evaluated temporal trends and predictors of retention for each step from HIV testing to ART initiation over the past decade at the GHESKIO clinic in Port-au-Prince Haiti. The 24,925 patients >17 years of age who received a positive HIV test at GHESKIO from March 1, 2003 to February 28, 2013 were included. Patients were followed until they remained in pre-ART care for one year or initiated ART. Results: 24,925 patients (61% female, median age 35 years) were included, and 15,008 (60%) had blood drawn for CD4 count within 12 months of HIV testing; the trend increased over time from 36% in Year 1 to 78% in Year 10 (p<0.0001). Excluding transfers, the proportion of patients who were retained in pre-ART care or initiated ART within the first year after HIV testing was 84%, 82%, 64%, and 64%, for CD4 count strata <200,201 to 350, 351 to 500, and >500 cells/mm3 respectively. The trend increased over time for each CD4 strata, and in Year 10, 94%, 95%, 79%, and 74% were retained in pre-ART care or initiated ART for each CD4 strata. Predictors of pre-ART attrition included male gender, low income, and low educational status. Older age and tuberculosis (TB) at HIV testing were associated with retention in care. Conclusions: The proportion of patients completing assessments for ART eligibility, remaining in pre-ART care, and initiating ART have increased over the last decade across all CD4 count strata, particularly among patients with CD4 count <350 cells/mm3. However, additional retention efforts are needed for patients with higher CD4 counts. © 2016 Koenig et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Koenig S.P.,Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO | Koenig S.P.,Harvard University | Bornstein A.,Analysis Group | Severe K.,Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective: We assessed the association between gender and mortality on antiretroviral therapy (ART) using identical models with and without sex-specific categories for weight and hemoglobin. Design Cohort study of adult patients on ART. Setting GHESKIO Clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants 4,717 ART-naïve adult patients consecutively enrolled on ART at GHESKIO from 2003 to 2008. Main Outcome Measure Mortality on ART; multivariable analyses were conducted with and without sex-specific categories for weight and hemoglobin. Results: In Haiti, male gender was associated with mortality (OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.30-2.00) in multivariable analyses with hemoglobin and weight included as control variables, but not when sex-specific interactions with hemoglobin and weight were used. Conclusions: If sex-specific categories are omitted, multivariable analyses indicate a higher risk of mortality for males vs. females of the same weight and hemoglobin. However, because males have higher normal values for weight and hemoglobin, the males in this comparison would generally have poorer health status than the females. This may explain why gender differences in mortality are sometimes observed after controlling for differences in baseline variables when gender-specific interactions with weight and hemoglobin are omitted. © 2015 Koenig et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Koenig S.P.,Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO | Koenig S.P.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Rodriguez L.A.,COPRESIDA | Bartholomew C.,Medical Port | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Objectives: To report long-term HIV treatment outcomes in 7 Caribbean countries. Design: Observational cohort study. Methods: We report outcomes for all antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive adult patients enrolled on ART from program inception until study closing for cohorts in Barbados, the Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica Martinique, Trinidad, and Puerto Rico. Incidence and predictors of mortality were analyzed by time-to-event approaches. Results: A total of 8203 patients were on ART from 1998 to 2008. Median follow-up time was 31 months (interquartile range: 14-50 months). The overall mortality was 13%: 6% in Martinique, 8% in Jamaica, 11% in Trinidad, 13% in Haiti, 15% in the Dominican Republic, 15% in Barbados, and 24% in Puerto Rico. Mortality was associated with male gender [hazard ratio (HR), 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33 to 1.87], body weight (HR, 0.85 per 10 pounds; 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.89), hemoglobin (HR, 0.84 per g/dL; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.88), CD4 cell count (0.90 per 50 CD4 cells; 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.93), concurrent tuberculosis (HR, 1.58; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.01) and age (HR, 1.19 per 10 years; 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.28). After controlling for these variables, mortality in Martinique Jamaica, Trinidad, and Haiti was not significantly different. A total of 75% of patients remained alive and in care at the end of the study period. Conclusions: Long-term mortality rates vary widely across the Caribbean countries. Much of the difference can be explained by disease severity at ART initiation, nutritional status, and concurrent tuberculosis. Earlier ART initiation will be critical to improve the outcomes. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO, New York Medical College, University of California at Los Angeles, Florida International University and Brigham and Women's Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti.A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year.The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing the best age to perform MMC as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that MMC prevents HIV entirely is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%.Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies with larger and more representative samples are needed to confirm this finding.


PubMed | Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO, Florida International University, Harvard University and New York Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

High attrition during the period from HIV testing to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is widely reported. Though treatment guidelines have changed to broaden ART eligibility and services have been widely expanded over the past decade, data on the temporal trends in pre-ART outcomes are limited; such data would be useful to guide future policy decisions.We evaluated temporal trends and predictors of retention for each step from HIV testing to ART initiation over the past decade at the GHESKIO clinic in Port-au-Prince Haiti. The 24,925 patients >17 years of age who received a positive HIV test at GHESKIO from March 1, 2003 to February 28, 2013 were included. Patients were followed until they remained in pre-ART care for one year or initiated ART.24,925 patients (61% female, median age 35 years) were included, and 15,008 (60%) had blood drawn for CD4 count within 12 months of HIV testing; the trend increased over time from 36% in Year 1 to 78% in Year 10 (p<0.0001). Excluding transfers, the proportion of patients who were retained in pre-ART care or initiated ART within the first year after HIV testing was 84%, 82%, 64%, and 64%, for CD4 count strata 200, 201 to 350, 351 to 500, and >500 cells/mm3, respectively. The trend increased over time for each CD4 strata, and in Year 10, 94%, 95%, 79%, and 74% were retained in pre-ART care or initiated ART for each CD4 strata. Predictors of pre-ART attrition included male gender, low income, and low educational status. Older age and tuberculosis (TB) at HIV testing were associated with retention in care.The proportion of patients completing assessments for ART eligibility, remaining in pre-ART care, and initiating ART have increased over the last decade across all CD4 count strata, particularly among patients with CD4 count 350 cells/mm3. However, additional retention efforts are needed for patients with higher CD4 counts.


PubMed | Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO, Cornell University, Analysis Group and Florida International University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

We assessed the association between gender and mortality on antiretroviral therapy (ART) using identical models with and without sex-specific categories for weight and hemoglobin.Cohort study of adult patients on ART.GHESKIO Clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.4,717 ART-nave adult patients consecutively enrolled on ART at GHESKIO from 2003 to 2008.Mortality on ART; multivariable analyses were conducted with and without sex-specific categories for weight and hemoglobin.In Haiti, male gender was associated with mortality (OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.30-2.00) in multivariable analyses with hemoglobin and weight included as control variables, but not when sex-specific interactions with hemoglobin and weight were used.If sex-specific categories are omitted, multivariable analyses indicate a higher risk of mortality for males vs. females of the same weight and hemoglobin. However, because males have higher normal values for weight and hemoglobin, the males in this comparison would generally have poorer health status than the females. This may explain why gender differences in mortality are sometimes observed after controlling for differences in baseline variables when gender-specific interactions with weight and hemoglobin are omitted.


Koenig S.P.,Haitian Study Group For Kaposis Sarcoma And Opportunistic Infections Gheskio | Rouzier V.,Haitian Study Group For Kaposis Sarcoma And Opportunistic Infections Gheskio | Vilbrun S.C.,Haitian Study Group For Kaposis Sarcoma And Opportunistic Infections Gheskio | Morose W.,Port-au-Prince University | And 8 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2015

Problem In 2010, Haiti sustained a devastating earthquake that crippled the health-care infrastructure in the capital city, Port-au-Prince, and left 1.5 million people homeless. Subsequently, there was an increase in reported tuberculosis in the afected population. Approach We conducted active tuberculosis case finding in a camp for internally displaced persons and a nearby slum. Community health workers screened for tuberculosis at the household level. People with persistent cough were referred to a physician. The National Tuberculosis Program continued its national tuberculosis reporting system. Local setting Even before the earthquake, Haiti had the highest tuberculosis incidence in the Americas. About half of the tuberculosis cases occur in the Port-au-Prince region. Relevant changes The number of reported tuberculosis cases in Haiti has increased after the earthquake, but data are too limited to determine if this is due to an increase in tuberculosis burden or to improved case detection. Compared to previous national estimates (230 per 100 000 population), undiagnosed tuberculosis was threefold higher in a camp for internally displaced persons (693 per 100 000) and fvefold higher in an urban slum (1165 per 100 000). With funding from the World Health Organization (WHO), active case finding is now being done systematically in slums and camps. Lessons learnt Household-level screening for prolonged cough was effective in identifying patients with active tuberculosis in this study. Without accurate data, early detection of rising tuberculosis rates is challenging; data collection should be incorporated into pragmatic disease response programmes. © 2015, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) | Year: 2012

To report long-term HIV treatment outcomes in 7 Caribbean countries.Observational cohort study.We report outcomes for all antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive adult patients enrolled on ART from program inception until study closing for cohorts in Barbados, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Trinidad, and Puerto Rico. Incidence and predictors of mortality were analyzed by time-to-event approaches.A total of 8203 patients were on ART from 1998 to 2008. Median follow-up time was 31 months (interquartile range: 14-50 months). The overall mortality was 13%: 6% in Martinique, 8% in Jamaica, 11% in Trinidad, 13% in Haiti, 15% in the Dominican Republic, 15% in Barbados, and 24% in Puerto Rico. Mortality was associated with male gender [hazard ratio (HR), 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33 to 1.87], body weight (HR, 0.85 per 10 pounds; 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.89), hemoglobin (HR, 0.84 per g/dL; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.88), CD4 cell count (0.90 per 50 CD4 cells; 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.93), concurrent tuberculosis (HR, 1.58; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.01) and age (HR, 1.19 per 10 years; 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.28). After controlling for these variables, mortality in Martinique, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Haiti was not significantly different. A total of 75% of patients remained alive and in care at the end of the study period.Long-term mortality rates vary widely across the Caribbean countries. Much of the difference can be explained by disease severity at ART initiation, nutritional status, and concurrent tuberculosis. Earlier ART initiation will be critical to improve the outcomes.


PubMed | Haitian Study Group for Kaposis Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections GHESKIO, Stanford University and Port-au-Prince University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2015

In 2010, Haiti sustained a devastating earthquake that crippled the health-care infrastructure in the capital city, Port-au-Prince, and left 1.5 million people homeless. Subsequently, there was an increase in reported tuberculosis in the affected population.We conducted active tuberculosis case finding in a camp for internally displaced persons and a nearby slum. Community health workers screened for tuberculosis at the household level. People with persistent cough were referred to a physician. The National Tuberculosis Program continued its national tuberculosis reporting system.Even before the earthquake, Haiti had the highest tuberculosis incidence in the Americas. About half of the tuberculosis cases occur in the Port-au-Prince region.The number of reported tuberculosis cases in Haiti has increased after the earthquake, but data are too limited to determine if this is due to an increase in tuberculosis burden or to improved case detection. Compared to previous national estimates (230 per 100,000 population), undiagnosed tuberculosis was threefold higher in a camp for internally displaced persons (693 per 100,000) and fivefold higher in an urban slum (1165 per 100,000). With funding from the World Health Organization (WHO), active case finding is now being done systematically in slums and camps.Household-level screening for prolonged cough was effective in identifying patients with active tuberculosis in this study. Without accurate data, early detection of rising tuberculosis rates is challenging; data collection should be incorporated into pragmatic disease response programmes.

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