Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement

Haikou, China

Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement

Haikou, China
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Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zeng H.-C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2017

Soil nematode and microbial community composition in different tillage and residue systems were investigated in a 12-year old field experiment in Hainan Island. The experiment was based on a split-plot design with tillage system (conventional tillage, conv. till; reduced tillage, reduced till; no-tillage, no till) as main plots and residue management (0% residue input, 0% res.; 50% residue input, 50% res.; 100% residue input, 100% res.) as subplots. Soil samples were taken at depth of 0–40 cm in 2015–2016. A total of 56 nematode genera with relative abundance over 0.1% were identified. Rotylenchulus and Meloidogyne in 0% res. conv. till were the dominant genera. In comparison with conv. till, reduced till and no till increased the number of protozoa, bacterivores and omnivore–carnivores. In case of microflora, similar patterns were observed with greater abundance of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in reduced till and no till than in conv. till. The residue addition soils favored bacterivores, fungivores and high colonizer-persister (c-p) value omnivores and carnivores, but less plant parasites. Soil food web in 50% res. no till, 100% res. reduced till and 100% res. no till treatments were highly structured, mature and moderately enriched as indicated by Structure (SI), Maturity (MI) and Enrichment (EI) indices, respectively. Higher number of bacterivores and lower values of Channel index (CI) suggested bacterial-dominated decomposition in no-tillage soil. Nematode community analysis indicated that no-tillage with residue addition increased nematode abundance and their functional metabolic footprint, and favored a more diverse residue resource entry into soil food webs. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Sheng Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sheng Z.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zheng L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zheng L.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

To date, there is little information on the degumming technology by Streptomyces lydicus for banana fibers destined for textiles. Furthermore, the retted efficiency and characterization of banana fiber has not yet been found in literatures. In this study, banana fiber (Musa spp. Baxijiao) bio-degumming at laboratory scale with controlled inoculation using selected strain (Streptomyces lydicus) and physicochemical characteristics of retted banana fiber were investigated. The hydrolysis activity of selected strain was conducted by pectin and hemicelluloses culture. Clear zones were visualized on pectin-agar and hemicelluloses-agar plates. Effect of fermentation conditions (temperature, pH, nitrogen source, carbon source and inoculums size) on banana fiber degumming was evaluated based on the content of residual gum and activity of pectin lyase. The results indicated that the optimum degumming medium of strain was pH value 5.0, NH4NO3 4 g/L, wheat bran 10 g and inoculums size 9 mL. After cultivating for 72 h, the activity of pectinase was 75 μg/(mL·min), the residual gum of banana fiber was 4.86%, the yield of retted banana fiber was 59.48% (dry weight). Structural and surface analysis of the degumming banana fibers showed a reduction in diameter and changes in surface morphology from that of the raw fibers. The average range of the fiber diameters were approximately 5-10 μm, which was lower (p<0.05) than the average size of the fiber bundles before treatment. This reduction in the fiber diameter was due to the dissolution of hemicelluloses and lignin, which was confirmed by the chemical analysis and Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscope (FTIR) graphs. The treated fibers showed higher (p<0.05) percentages of cellulose (43.13% to 69.88%) and lower (p<0.05) percentages of hemicelluloses (18.85% to 10.89%), lignin (14.05 to 9.06), pectin (3.43% to 1.91%), and wax (12.24% to 5.77%) compared with untreated fibers. The physical property of fibers were analyzed according to the GB standards(GB5889-1986) and showed an increase in fineness (18.55 to 8.91 tex), and a decrease in break strength (345.37 to 237.37 cN) for the retted fibers. A small weight loss was found from 50 to 100°C, and this loss was primarily attributed to moisture and solvent evaporation or to the low-molecular- weight compounds remained after the isolation procedures. The fiber thermal stability for temperature ranging between 200 and 300°C was primarily due to the depolymerization of non-cellulose, such as hemicelluloses, and the cleavage of glycosidic linkages of cellulose to form levoglucosan (1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) and carbon residues. The decomposition of lignin occurred in the region from 200 to 500°C. The thermogram of the raw banana fiber indicated a greater resistance to degradation in the range of 354 to 527°C due to the presence of larger amounts of hemicelluloses and lignin, the maximum degradation rate was found during the α-cellulose decomposition of raw and treated banana fibers at 287.45 and 349.04°C (mass loss = 87.24%), respectively. The thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability of the treated fibers was improved. The XRD pattern of retted fiber, which exhibited an increased crystallinity (11.8% to 52.6%), gives a relatively intense peak at 2θ = 23.87°, and hydrolysis took place preferentially in the amorphous region. In all, the results showed that the Streptomyces lydicus stain had good applying prospects in microbial retting and enzymatic retting of banana fiber.


Song S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Song S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Song S.,Haikou Key Laboratory of Banana Biology | Chen X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 13 more authors.
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that regulate targeted mRNAs by post-transcription; thus, miRNAs are considered post-transcription regulators. Although numerous miRNAs have been found in model plants, information on miRNAs in banana is limited. In this study, 139 members in 38 miRNA families were determined by sequencing the small RNA (sRNA) transcriptomes of Fusarium wilt-resistant and susceptible banana varieties, and six out of eight new miRNAs were confirmed by RT-PCR. According to the sRNA transcriptome data and qRT-PCR verification, some miRNAs were differentially expressed between Fusarium wilt-resistant and susceptible banana varieties. A total of 293 and 31 target genes were predicted based on the draft maps of banana A genome and Fusarium oxysporum (FOC1, FOC4) genomes, respectively. Two important pathogenic genes in F. oxysporum genomes, namely, feruloyl esterase gene and proline iminopeptidase gene, were targeted by banana miRNAs. These novel findings may provide a new strategy for preventing and controlling Fusarium wilt in banana. © 2016 South African Association of Botanists


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zeng H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Pedosphere | Year: 2015

Soil microbiological and biochemical properties under various field crop rotations such as grains, pastures and vegetables have been studied intensively under short-term period. However, there is limited information about the influence of banana-based rotations on soil organic C, total N (TN), microbial biomasses and enzyme activities under long-term crop rotations. A field experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates was carried out at the Wanzhong Farm in Ledong (18° 37'-18°38' N, 108°46'-108°48' E), Hainan Province, China, to compare the responses of these soil parameters to long-term (10-year) banana (Musa paradisiaca)-pineapple (Ananas) rotation (AB), banana-papaya (Carica) rotation (BB) and banana monoculture (CK) in a conventional tillage system in the Hainan Island. Soil pH, total organic C (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), TN, total P (TP) and available P (AP) were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) in AB and BB than CK at 0-30 cm soil depth. Microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) were observed 18.0%-35.2% higher in AB and 8.6%-40.5% higher in BB than CK at 0-30 cm. The activities of urease (UA), invertase (IA), dehydrogenase (DA) and acid phosphatase (APA) showed a mean of 21.5%-59.6% increase in AB and 26.7%-66.1% increase in BB compared with CK at 0-30 cm. Higher pH, TOC and DOC at 0-10 and 10-20 cm than at 20-30 cm were obtained despite of the rotations. Soil MBC and MBN and activities of UA, IA and DA decreased markedly (P < 0.01) with increasing soil depth in the different rotation soils as well as the monoculture soil. In general, soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activities were more sensitive to changes in banana-based rotations than soil chemical properties, and consequently they were well-established as early indicators of changes due to crop rotations in the tropics. © 2015 Soil Science Society of China.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zeng H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Pedosphere | Year: 2015

A field experiment was carried out from 2003 to 2013 in the Wanzhong Farm of the Hainan Island, China, to determine the effects of two long-term banana rotations on the abundance and trophic groups of soil nematode communities in the island. The experiment was set out as a randomized complete block design with three replications of three treatments: banana-pineapple rotation (AB), banana-papaya rotation (BB) and banana monoculture (CK) in a conventional tillage system. Soil samples were taken at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm, and nematodes were extracted by a modified cotton-wool filter method and identified to the genus level. Nematode ecological indices of Shannon-Weaver diversity ( H'), dominance index (λ), maturity index (MI), plant parasite index (PPI), structure index (SI), enrichment index (EI), and channel index (CI) were calculated. A total of 28 nematode genera with relative abundance over 0.1% were identified, among which Tylenchus and Paratylenchus in the AB, Thonus in the BB, Tylenchus and Helicotylenchus in the CK were the dominant genera. The rotation soils favored bacterivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators with high colonizer-persister (c-p) values. Soil food web in the rotation systems was highly structured, mature and enriched as indicated by SI, MI and EI values, respectively. Higher abundance of bacterivores and lower values of CI suggested that the soil food web was dominated by a bacterial decomposition pathway in rotation soils. Nematode diversity was much higher after a decade of rotation. Soil depth had significant effects on the abundance of soil nematodes, but only on two nematode ecological indices (λ and MI). © 2015 Soil Science Society of China.


Sheng Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sheng Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gao J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

A steam explosion degumming method coupled with the 16 (44) orthogonal array design was used to investigate the efficient retting of fibers. Four parameters were examined to determine the residual gum and lignin content of retted fibers, and the optimum extraction conditions were determined to be the following: banana fiber moisture content of 10%, 1.2% NaOH, steam pressure of 1.75 MPa, and residence time of 90 s. Under optimized conditions, the experimental yield of residual gum (5.47±0.22%) and lignin (3.78±0.12%) agreed closely with the predicted yield. The chemical composition of the fibers was analyzed, and the retted fibers exhibited an increase in the cellulose content and a decrease in the lignin and hemicellulose contents. This result was further confirmed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the treated fibers showed a change in their surface morphology compared with that of the raw fibers. Their thermal characterization showed an enhanced thermal stability of the retted fibers compared to the raw fibers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40598. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Gang G.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Gang G.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | And 4 more authors.
Research on Crops | Year: 2013

To study the effect of banana continuous cropping on soil ecosystem, soil nematode community structure and diversity, as well as soil chemical properties under continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years were investigated in Hainan province, China. The results indicated that the mean relative abundances of 41 nematode genera belonging to 23 families under the six treatments were identified. The abundance of total nematodes, fungivores, the values of diversity (H'), maturity index (MI) and Wasilewska index (WI) tended to decrease from 1 to 15 years at most of the sampling stages, while the abundance of omnivores-predators, the values of dominance (ë), plant parasite index PPI and maturity index ratio (PPI/MI) exhibited a increase pattern. The abundance of bacterivores at the jointing and ripening stages and plant parasites at the boot stage progressively increased from 1 to 7 years and decreased again afterwards. Continuous cropping tended to decrease the values of pH, the contents of TOC, TN, NH4-N and NO3-N at most of the sampling stages. In conclusion, banana continuous cropping deteriorated soil ecosystem as evidenced by increasing soil acidity, decreasing soil C and N contents, increasing abundance of omnivores-predators and decreasing that of bacterivores and fungivores. The results indicated that nematofauna could be used to assess the effects of continuous cropping on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical indicators.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Mo Y.,Shaoxing University | Guo G.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The effects of banana continuous cropping on soil quality and chemical properties and crop yield were investigated under continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 years in Hainan province, China. The results indicated that the contents of total N, total K, available K, NH4-N, exchangeable Ca, and available Cu tended to increase, while total organic C (TOC), available S, and available Zn tended to decrease with the increase of continuous cropping years at the four sampling stages. The contents of exchangeable Mg and available Fe and Mn were higher in the 3, 5, 7, and 10 years than in the 1 and 15 years at the four sampling stages. The values of pH, the contents of total P and available P decreased from 1 to 5 years and increased from 7 to 15 years at most of the sampling stages. Overall, average banana yield increased from 1 to 3 years and decreased afterwards. In conclusion, banana continuous cropping deteriorated soil quality as evidenced by increase of soil acidity, decrease of total organic C, accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Cu, deficiency of Mg, S, Fe, Mn, and Zn and accompanying decline in banana yield. In order to improve the soil environment and sustain higher productivity under continuous-banana cropping system, application of balanced rate of fertilizers is of considerable importance.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zang X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zeng H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Soil nematodes are the most abundant group of soil animals that rapidly react to environmental changes. In the farmland ecosystem, fertilizer and irrigation are two important factors influence the composition and diversity of soil nematode community. The effect of various water and fertilizer usages under a fertigation regime on the soil nematode community structure was investigated in a banana plantation of Hainan Province in this study. Four treatments were designed: A (low amount of water and fertilizer), B (low amount of fertilizer and high amount of water), C (high amount of fertilizer and low amount of water), and D (high amount of water and fertilizer). Soil samples were extracted using a soil corer (3.0 cm diameter) at a depth of 0-30 cm below the soil surface from July 2011 to June 2012 within the plant rows of banana plants, 50 cm from the base of the banana plant. The nematodes were extracted through the shallow basin method, and were identified to the genus level with the aid of a microscope. Results showed that significant treatment effects (P<0.01) were observed in the abundance of total nematodes, bacterivores, fungivores, plant parasites, omnivore-predators, the values of diversity (H'), maturity index (MI), channel ratio (NCR), the wasilewska index (WI), and the enrichment index (EI) during the four sampling stages. Thirty-four nematode genera belonging to twenty-two families were identified during the sampling stages, of which Basiria and Paratylenchus were the dominant genera. The abundance of plant parasites and omnivore-predators in the C treatment and the abundance of total nematodes, bacterivores, and fungivores in the D treatment were significantly higher than in the other treatments. The values of MI and WI in the A treatment, the values of structure index (SI) and EI in the B treatment, the values of H' and NCR in the C treatment, and the values of thheplant parasite index (PPI) in the D treatment were significantly higher than in the other treatments. Significant sampling time effects (P < 0.01) were observed in the abundance of total nematodes, bacterivores, fungivores, plant parasites, the values of H', dominance (λ), PPI, NCR, WI, SI, and EI. The abundance of bacterivores, fungivores, and plant parasites at the booting and ripening stages were significantly higher than at the other stages. The values of H', NCR, SI, and EI at the seedling stage, the values of MI and WI at the jointing stage, the values of λ at the booting stage, and the values of PPI at the ripening stage were significantly higher than at the other stages. The analysis of NCR showed that bacterial decomposition was the major decomposition pathway in the soil organic substance decomposition system. The data from MI, PPI, SI, and EI demonstrated that the nematode community structure was more stable in the A and B treatments than in the C and D treatments. The excessive application of water and fertilizer increased the level of disturbance of the soil ecosystem and posed a significant threat to the soil environment. Nematodes could be used as bio-indicators for assessing soil quality under irrigation and fertilization.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zeng H.-C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2016

Soil nematode community composition and diversity response to banana-pineapple (BA), banana-papaya (BP), banana-rice (BR) rotations and banana monoculture (CK) (12-year annual crops) under no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) were assessed in the Wanzhong Farm in Hainan Island, China. Soil samples were taken at depth of 0-40 cm in 2014-2015. A total of 47 nematode genera with relative abundance over 0.1% were identified. Acrobeloides in BANT and BRCT, Aphelenchus in BANT, BACT, BRNT and BRCT, Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchulus and Meloidogyne in CKNT and CKCT were the dominant genera. In comparison with CK, BA, BP and BR increased the number of bacterivores, fungivores and omnivore-carnivores, and the concentration of bacterial PLFA and fungal PLFA. The no-tillage soils favored bacterivores, fungivores and high colonizer-persister (c-p) value omnivores and carnivores, but reduced plant parasites. Soil food web in the rotation combined with no-tillage systems was highly structured, mature and moderately enriched as indicated by Structure (SI), Maturity (MI) and Enrichment (EI) index values, respectively. Higher number of bacterivores and lower values of Channel index (CI) suggested bacterial-dominated decomposition in no-tillage soil. Soil nematode diversity and functional metabolic footprint were much greater after 12 years of crop rotation. The descriptive indicators were useful to provide insight into the effect of rotation and tillage, and the evaluative indicators were more comprehensive for interpreting the structure and function of the soil food web under different crop rotations and tillage. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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