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Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zeng H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Pedosphere | Year: 2015

Soil microbiological and biochemical properties under various field crop rotations such as grains, pastures and vegetables have been studied intensively under short-term period. However, there is limited information about the influence of banana-based rotations on soil organic C, total N (TN), microbial biomasses and enzyme activities under long-term crop rotations. A field experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates was carried out at the Wanzhong Farm in Ledong (18° 37'-18°38' N, 108°46'-108°48' E), Hainan Province, China, to compare the responses of these soil parameters to long-term (10-year) banana (Musa paradisiaca)-pineapple (Ananas) rotation (AB), banana-papaya (Carica) rotation (BB) and banana monoculture (CK) in a conventional tillage system in the Hainan Island. Soil pH, total organic C (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), TN, total P (TP) and available P (AP) were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) in AB and BB than CK at 0-30 cm soil depth. Microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) were observed 18.0%-35.2% higher in AB and 8.6%-40.5% higher in BB than CK at 0-30 cm. The activities of urease (UA), invertase (IA), dehydrogenase (DA) and acid phosphatase (APA) showed a mean of 21.5%-59.6% increase in AB and 26.7%-66.1% increase in BB compared with CK at 0-30 cm. Higher pH, TOC and DOC at 0-10 and 10-20 cm than at 20-30 cm were obtained despite of the rotations. Soil MBC and MBN and activities of UA, IA and DA decreased markedly (P < 0.01) with increasing soil depth in the different rotation soils as well as the monoculture soil. In general, soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activities were more sensitive to changes in banana-based rotations than soil chemical properties, and consequently they were well-established as early indicators of changes due to crop rotations in the tropics. © 2015 Soil Science Society of China.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zeng H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Pedosphere | Year: 2015

A field experiment was carried out from 2003 to 2013 in the Wanzhong Farm of the Hainan Island, China, to determine the effects of two long-term banana rotations on the abundance and trophic groups of soil nematode communities in the island. The experiment was set out as a randomized complete block design with three replications of three treatments: banana-pineapple rotation (AB), banana-papaya rotation (BB) and banana monoculture (CK) in a conventional tillage system. Soil samples were taken at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm, and nematodes were extracted by a modified cotton-wool filter method and identified to the genus level. Nematode ecological indices of Shannon-Weaver diversity ( H'), dominance index (λ), maturity index (MI), plant parasite index (PPI), structure index (SI), enrichment index (EI), and channel index (CI) were calculated. A total of 28 nematode genera with relative abundance over 0.1% were identified, among which Tylenchus and Paratylenchus in the AB, Thonus in the BB, Tylenchus and Helicotylenchus in the CK were the dominant genera. The rotation soils favored bacterivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators with high colonizer-persister (c-p) values. Soil food web in the rotation systems was highly structured, mature and enriched as indicated by SI, MI and EI values, respectively. Higher abundance of bacterivores and lower values of CI suggested that the soil food web was dominated by a bacterial decomposition pathway in rotation soils. Nematode diversity was much higher after a decade of rotation. Soil depth had significant effects on the abundance of soil nematodes, but only on two nematode ecological indices (λ and MI). © 2015 Soil Science Society of China.


Sheng Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sheng Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gao J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

A steam explosion degumming method coupled with the 16 (44) orthogonal array design was used to investigate the efficient retting of fibers. Four parameters were examined to determine the residual gum and lignin content of retted fibers, and the optimum extraction conditions were determined to be the following: banana fiber moisture content of 10%, 1.2% NaOH, steam pressure of 1.75 MPa, and residence time of 90 s. Under optimized conditions, the experimental yield of residual gum (5.47±0.22%) and lignin (3.78±0.12%) agreed closely with the predicted yield. The chemical composition of the fibers was analyzed, and the retted fibers exhibited an increase in the cellulose content and a decrease in the lignin and hemicellulose contents. This result was further confirmed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the treated fibers showed a change in their surface morphology compared with that of the raw fibers. Their thermal characterization showed an enhanced thermal stability of the retted fibers compared to the raw fibers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40598. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Mo Y.,Shaoxing University | Guo G.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The effects of banana continuous cropping on soil quality and chemical properties and crop yield were investigated under continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 years in Hainan province, China. The results indicated that the contents of total N, total K, available K, NH4-N, exchangeable Ca, and available Cu tended to increase, while total organic C (TOC), available S, and available Zn tended to decrease with the increase of continuous cropping years at the four sampling stages. The contents of exchangeable Mg and available Fe and Mn were higher in the 3, 5, 7, and 10 years than in the 1 and 15 years at the four sampling stages. The values of pH, the contents of total P and available P decreased from 1 to 5 years and increased from 7 to 15 years at most of the sampling stages. Overall, average banana yield increased from 1 to 3 years and decreased afterwards. In conclusion, banana continuous cropping deteriorated soil quality as evidenced by increase of soil acidity, decrease of total organic C, accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Cu, deficiency of Mg, S, Fe, Mn, and Zn and accompanying decline in banana yield. In order to improve the soil environment and sustain higher productivity under continuous-banana cropping system, application of balanced rate of fertilizers is of considerable importance.


Zhong S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhong S.,Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement | Zeng H.-C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin Z.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2016

Soil nematode community composition and diversity response to banana-pineapple (BA), banana-papaya (BP), banana-rice (BR) rotations and banana monoculture (CK) (12-year annual crops) under no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) were assessed in the Wanzhong Farm in Hainan Island, China. Soil samples were taken at depth of 0-40 cm in 2014-2015. A total of 47 nematode genera with relative abundance over 0.1% were identified. Acrobeloides in BANT and BRCT, Aphelenchus in BANT, BACT, BRNT and BRCT, Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchulus and Meloidogyne in CKNT and CKCT were the dominant genera. In comparison with CK, BA, BP and BR increased the number of bacterivores, fungivores and omnivore-carnivores, and the concentration of bacterial PLFA and fungal PLFA. The no-tillage soils favored bacterivores, fungivores and high colonizer-persister (c-p) value omnivores and carnivores, but reduced plant parasites. Soil food web in the rotation combined with no-tillage systems was highly structured, mature and moderately enriched as indicated by Structure (SI), Maturity (MI) and Enrichment (EI) index values, respectively. Higher number of bacterivores and lower values of Channel index (CI) suggested bacterial-dominated decomposition in no-tillage soil. Soil nematode diversity and functional metabolic footprint were much greater after 12 years of crop rotation. The descriptive indicators were useful to provide insight into the effect of rotation and tillage, and the evaluative indicators were more comprehensive for interpreting the structure and function of the soil food web under different crop rotations and tillage. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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