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Chen Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Y.,University of Sichuan | Hou Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Guo Z.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The genus Rhizophora is one of the most important components of mangrove forests. It is an ideal system for studying biogeography, molecular evolution, population genetics, hybridization and conservation genetics of mangroves. However, there are no sufficient molecular markers to address these topics. Here, we developed 77 pairs of nuclear gene primers, which showed successful PCR amplifications across all five Rhizophora species and sequencing in R. apiculata. Here, we present three tentative applications using a subset of the developed nuclear genes to (I) reconstruct the phylogeny, (II) examine the genetic structure and (III) identify natural hybridization in Rhizophora. Phylogenetic analyses support the hypothesis that Rhizophora had disappeared in the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) region and was re-colonized from the IWP region approximately 12.7 Mya. Population genetics analyses in four natural populations of R. apiculata in Hainan, China, revealed extremely low genetic diversity, strong population differentiation and extensive admixture, suggesting that the Pleistocene glaciations, particularly the last glacial maximum, greatly influenced the population dynamics of R. apiculata in Hainan. We also verified the hybrid status of a morphologically intermediate individual between R. apiculata and R. stylosa in Hainan. Based on the sequences of five nuclear genes and one chloroplast intergenic spacer, this individual is likely to be an F1 hybrid, with R. stylosa as its maternal parent. The nuclear gene markers developed in this study should be of great value for characterizing the hybridization and introgression patterns in other cases of this genus and testing the role of natural selection using population genomics approaches. © 2015 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Chen S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhou R.,Sun Yat Sen University | Huang Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang M.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 3 more authors.
Marine Genomics | Year: 2011

Mangroves are critical and threatened marine resources, yet few transcriptomic and genomic data are available in public databases. The transcriptome of a highly salt tolerant mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, was sequenced using the Illumina Genome Analyzer in this study. Over 15million 75-bp paired-end reads were assembled into 30,628 unique sequences with an average length of 581bp. Of them, 2358 SSRs were detected, with di-nucleotide repeats (59.2%) and tri-nucleotide repeats (37.7%) being the most common. Analysis of codon usage bias based on 20,945 coding sequences indicated that genes of S. alba were less biased than those of some microorganisms and Drosophila and that codon usage variation in S. alba was due primarily to compositional mutation bias, while translational selection has a relatively weak effect. Genome-wide gene ontology (GO) assignments showed that S. alba shared a similar GO slim classification with Arabidopsis thaliana. High percentages of sequences assigned to GO slim category 'mitochondrion' and four KEGG pathways, such as carbohydrates and secondary metabolites metabolism, may contribute to salt adaptation of S. alba. In addition, 1266 unique sequences matched to 273 known salt responsive genes (gene families) in other species were screened as candidates for salt tolerance of S. alba, and some of these genes showed fairly high coverage depth. At last, we identified four genes with signals of strong diversifying selection (Ka/Ks>1) by comparing the transcriptome sequences of S. alba with 249 known ESTs from its congener S. caseolaris. This study demonstrated a successful application of the Illumina platform to de novo assembly of the transcriptome of a non-model organism. Abundant SSR markers, salt responsive genes and four genes with signature of natural selection obtained from S. alba provide abundant sequence sources for future genetic diversity, salt adaptation and speciation studies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Liang S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liang S.,South China Normal University | Fang L.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhou R.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Differential responses to the environmental stresses at the level of transcription play a critical role in adaptation. Mangrove species compose a dominant community in intertidal zones and form dense forests at the sea-land interface, and although the anatomical and physiological features associated with their cngs: We report the time-course transcript profiles in the roots of a true mangrove species, Ceriops tagal, as revealed by a series of microarray experiments. The expression of a total of 432 transcripts changed significantly in the roots of C. tagal under salt shock, of which 83 had a more than 2-fold change and were further assembled into 59 unigenes. Global transcription was stable at the early stage of salt stress and then was gradually dysregulated with the increased duration of the stress. Importantly, a pair-wise comparison of predicted homologous gene pairs revealed that the transcriptional regulations of most of the differentially expressed genes were highly divergent in C. tagal from that in salt-sensitive species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Conclusions/Significance: This work suggests that transcriptional homeostasis and specific transcriptional regulation are major events in the roots of C. tagal when subjected to salt shock, which could contribute to the establishment of adaptation to saline environments and, thus, facilitate the salt-tolerant lifestyle of this mangrove species. Furthermore, the candidate genes underlying the adaptation were identified through comparative analyses. This study provides a foundation for dissecting the genetic basis of the adaptation of mangroves to intertidal environments. © 2012 Liang et al.

Zhou R.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ling S.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | Zhao W.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | Osada N.,Japan National Institute of Biomedical Innovation | And 14 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2011

Population genetics of species living in marginal habitats could be particularly informative about the genetics of adaptation, but such analyses have not been readily feasible until recently. Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, provides a very suitable system for the study of local adaptation. In this study, we analyzed DNA variation by pooling 71 genes from 85-100 individuals for DNA sequencing. For each of the two nearby S. alba populations, we obtained ∼2,500 × coverage on the Illumina GA platform and for the Sanya population, an additional 5,400 × coverage on the AB SOLiD platform. For the Sanya sample, although each sequencing method called many putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the two sets of calls did not overlap, suggesting platform-dependent errors. Conventional sequencing corroborated that each population is monomorphic. The two populations differ by 54 bp of 79,000 sites, but 90% of the variants are found in 10% of the genes. Strong local adaptation and high migration may help to explain the extensive monomorphism shared by the two populations in the presence of a small number of highly differentiated loci. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All reserved.

PubMed | Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve and Sun Yat Sen University
Type: | Journal: Marine genomics | Year: 2016

Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco is one of the most salt tolerant mangrove species and can thrive in 3% salinity at the seaward edge of mangrove forests. Here we sequenced the transcriptome of A. corniculatum used Illumina GA platform to develop its genomic resources for ecological and evolutionary studies. We obtained about 50 million high-quality paired-end reads with 75bp in length. Using the short read assembler Velvet, we yielded 49,437 contigs with the average length of 625bp. A total of 32,744 (66.23%) contigs showed significant similarity to the GenBank non-redundant (NR) protein database. 30,911 and 18,004 of these sequences were assigned to Gene Ontology and eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG). A total of 4942 transcripts from our assemblies had significant similarity with KEGG Orthologs and were involved in 144 KEGG pathways, while 9899 unigenes had enzyme commission (EC) numbers. In addition, 9792 transcriptome-derived SSRs were identified from 7342 sequences. With our strict criteria, 4165 candidate SNPs were also identified from 2058 contigs. Some of these SNPs were further validated by Sanger sequencing. Genomic resources generated in this study should be valuable in ecological, evolutionary, and functional genomics studies for this mangrove species.

PubMed | Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve and Sun Yat Sen University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

The mangrove fern genus Acrostichum grows in the extremely unstable marine intertidal zone under harsh conditions, such as high salt concentrations, tidal rhythms and long-term climate changes. To explore the phylogenetic relationships and molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in this genus, we sequenced the transcriptomes of two species of Acrostichum, A. aureum and A. speciosum, as well as a species in the sister genus, Ceratopteris thalictroides. We obtained 47,517, 36,420 and 60,823 unigenes for the three ferns, of which 24.39-45.63% were annotated using public databases. The estimated divergence time revealed that Acrostichum adapted to the coastal region during the late Cretaceous, whereas the two mangrove ferns from the Indo West-Pacific (IWP) area diverged more recently. Two methods (the modified branch-site model and the K

PubMed | Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve, Sun Yat Sen University and CAS South China Botanical Garden
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2015

Acanthus is a unique genus consisting of both true mangrove and terrestrial species; thus, it represents an ideal system for studying the origin and adaptive evolution of mangrove plants to intertidal environments. However, little is known regarding the two respects of mangrove species in Acanthus. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of the pooled roots and leaves tissues for a mangrove species, Acanthus ilicifolius, and its terrestrial congener, A. leucostachyus, to illustrate the origin of the mangrove species in this genus and their adaptive evolution to harsh habitats.We obtained 73,039 and 69,580 contigs with N50 values of 741 and 1557bp for A. ilicifolius and A. leucostachyus, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on four nuclear segments and three chloroplast fragments revealed that mangroves and terrestrial species in Acanthus fell into different clades, indicating a single origin of the mangrove species in Acanthus. Based on 6634 orthologs, A. ilicifolius and A. leucostachyus were found to be highly divergent, with a peak of synonymous substitution rate (Ks) distribution of 0.145 and an estimated divergence time of approximately 16.8 million years ago (MYA). The transgression in the Early to Middle Miocene may be the major reason for the entry of the mangrove lineage of Acanthus into intertidal environments. Gene ontology (GO) classifications of the full transcriptomes did not show any apparent differences between A. ilicifolius and A. leucostachyus, suggesting the absence of gene components specific to the mangrove transcriptomes. A total of 99 genes in A. ilicifolius were identified with signals of positive selection. Twenty-three of the 99 positively selected genes (PSGs) were found to be involved in salt, heat and ultraviolet stress tolerance, seed germination and embryo development under periodic inundation. These stress-tolerance related PSGs may be crucial for the adaptation of the mangrove species in this genus to stressful marine environments and may contribute to speciation in Acanthus.We characterized the transcriptomes of one mangrove species of Acanthus, A. ilicifolius, and its terrestrial relative, A. leucostachyus, and provided insights into the origin of the mangrove Acanthus species and their adaptive evolution to abiotic stresses in intertidal environments.

PubMed | Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve and Sun Yat Sen University
Type: | Journal: Marine genomics | Year: 2015

Mangroves are dominant woody plants in the intertidal zones and are of both ecological and economic importance. Species of Ceriops, also called yellow mangroves, have many adaptive traits (including vivipary) for coping with the harsh marine environments. However, little is known about the origination and evolutionary history of this genus. In this study, we aim to provide clues to these two questions by sequencing the transcriptomes of two Ceriops species, Ceriops tagal and Ceriops zippeliana, and one of their terrestrial relatives, Pellacalyx yunnanensis. 48.19, 10.50 and 35.37 million high-quality reads that were generated by Illumina sequencing were assembled into 50,807, 40,543 and 64,147 contigs for the three species, respectively. After removing redundancy and contigs with low coverage, 39,361, 34,362, and 51,668 contigs with the N50 values of 1553, 772 and 1833bp, respectively, were retained for further analysis. Of them, 17,348, 16,484 and 18,038 contigs were successfully annotated with the known gene ontology (GO) terms. GO classifications of the transcriptome profiles for the three species are similar. Most of the contigs were assigned to the cell and organelle related GO terms in the cellular component category, binding in the molecular function category, and cellular process, metabolic process and biological regulation in the biological process category. We identified more than 6000 pairs of orthologs for each pair of the three species, with the peak of synonymous substitution rate (Ks) distribution of 0.03 between the two Ceriops species and 0.23 between each Ceriops species and P. yunnanensis. Our transcriptomic data provide a great amount of genomic resources for yellow mangroves and can be used for studying the origination and adaptive evolution of mangroves.

PubMed | Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve, Sun Yat Sen University and James Cook University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Avicennia L. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. To enhance our understanding of evolutionary patterns in the clade, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci. Our results support two monophyletic clades across all species worldwide in Avicennia: an Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) lineage and an Indo-West Pacific (IWP) lineage. This split is in line with biogeographic distribution of the clade. Focusing on the IWP branch, we reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on sequences from 25 nuclear genes. The results identified three distinct subclades, (1) A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2) A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3) the A. marina complex, with high bootstrap support. The results strongly corresponded to two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and style length. Using Bayesian dating methods we estimated diversification of the IWP lineage was dated to late Miocene (c. 6.0 million years ago) and may have been driven largely by the fluctuating sea levels since that time.

PubMed | Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve, Sun Yat Sen University and James Cook University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC evolutionary biology | Year: 2017

A large-scale systematical investigation of the influence of Pleistocene climate oscillation on mangrove population dynamics could enrich our knowledge about the evolutionary history during times of historical climate change, which in turn may provide important information for their conservation.In this study, phylogeography of a mangrove tree Sonneratia alba was studied by sequencing three chloroplast fragments and seven nuclear genes. A low level of genetic diversity at the population level was detected across its range, especially at the range margins, which was mainly attributed to the steep sea-level drop and associated climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene glacial periods. Extremely small effective population size (Ne) was inferred in populations from both eastern and western Malay Peninsula (44 and 396, respectively), mirroring the fragility of mangrove plants and their paucity of robustness against future climate perturbations and human activity. Two major genetic lineages of high divergence were identified in the two mangrove biodiversity centres: the Indo-Malesia and Australasia regions. The estimated splitting time between these two lineages was 3.153 million year ago (MYA), suggesting a role for pre-Pleistocene events in shaping the major diversity patterns of mangrove species. Within the Indo-Malesia region, a subdivision was implicated between the South China Sea (SCS) and the remaining area with a divergence time of 1.874 MYA, corresponding to glacial vicariance when the emerged Sunda Shelf halted genetic exchange between the western and eastern coasts of the Malay Peninsula during Pleistocene sea-level drops. Notably, genetic admixture was observed in populations at the boundary regions, especially in the two populations near the Malacca Strait, indicating secondary contact between divergent lineages during interglacial periods. These interregional genetic exchanges provided ample opportunity for the re-use of standing genetic variation, which could facilitate mangrove establishment and adaptation in new habitats, especially in the context of global climate changes.Phylogeogrpahic analysis in this study reveal that Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations had profound influence on population differentiation of the mangrove tree S. alba. Our study highlights the fragility of mangrove plants and offers a guide for the conservation of coastal mangrove communities experiencing ongoing changes in sea-level.

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