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Tieshan X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xiaolin L.,Northwest University, China | Wei H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Shuisheng H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Baoguo Y.,Hainan Academy of Agriculture Science
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2011

Traditional force feed technology produced excessive fat ducks and could not meet the wide range needs. This reseaerch studied the possibility of breeding muscular Pekin duck. Data collection was performed in an experimental Pekin duck line. At 7 weeks of age, 285 ducks were selected according to their pedigree to measure the traits studied in this study. Single and multiple trait analyses were used to estimated heritability and variance components by Restricted Maximum Likelihood. Heritability estimation of Body Weight (BW), Keel Length (KL), Breast Breadth (BB) and Breast Meat Thickness (BMT) were moderate to high (0.20-0.53). The heritability for Breast Muscle Weight (BMW) and Breast Meat Percentage (BMP) were 0.50 and 0.47, respectively suggesting an increase of breast meat development could be achieved by selection. The heritability of Abdominal Fat Weight (AFW), Abdominal Fat Percentage (AFP), Leg Muscle Weight (LMW) and Leg Muscle Percentage (LMP) were 0.23, 0.32, 0.38 and 0.16, respectively. The genetic correlation between BW and those of BMW and BMP were 0.74 and 0.25 which suggest that BMP, not BMW may be a selection criterion for muscular Pekin duck. The genetic correlation between BMP and those of KL, BB and BMT were 0.69, 0.69 and 0.71, respectively. The genetic correlation between BMP and AFP was -0.03 therefore, body size traits could be used as the selection index for improving the BMP and selecting for higher BMP should not decrease the leanness. In conclusion, higher BMP and lower AFP Pekin duck could be achieved. © Medwell Journals, 2011. Source

Xu T.,Institute of Animal Science | Xu T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Huang W.,Institute of Animal Science | Zhang X.,Henan University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Pekin Duck is world-famous for its fast growth, but its breast muscle development is later and breast muscle content is lower compared with other muscular ducks. Therefore, it is very important to discover the genetic mechanism between breast muscle development and relative gene expression in Pekin duck. In current study, the genes which have relationships with breast muscle development were identified by suppression sub-tractive hybridization. A total of 403 positive clones were sequenced and 257 unigenes were obtained. The expression of 23 genes were analyzed in the breast muscle of 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- week old Pekin ducks. The results showed that unknown clone A233, C83 and C99 showed descending tendency as age increased; KBTBD10, HSPA8, MYL1, ZFP622, MARCH4, Nexilin, FABP4 and MUSTN1 had high expression levels at 6 weeks old; WAC, NT5C3, HSP90AA1, MRPL33, KLF6, TSNAX, CDC42EP3, HSPA4, TRAK1, NR2F2, HAUS1 and IGF1 had high expression levels at 8 weeks and showed ascending tendency as age increased. Expression of these 23 genes were also analyzed in breast muscle, leg muscle, heart, kidney, liver, muscular stomach and sebum cutaneum in 4-8-week old Pekin duck and results showed that most of these genes had high expression in breast muscle, leg muscle and heart. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Xu T.S.,Northwest University, China | Xu T.S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu T.S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gu L.H.,Northwest University, China | And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

Myostatin, encoded by the MSTN gene, is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and its expression level in muscle tissue is closely correlated with muscle growth and satellite cell proliferation. To identify the characteristics of the Pekin duck MSTN gene and the relationship between its polymorphism and breast muscle traits in Pekin duck, cDNA cloning and analysis and the expression pattern in breast muscle development and polymorphism were performed using molecular cloning, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and molecular marker technology. The results showed that a 1320-bp sequence, including a 93-bp 5′-UTR, 1128-bp CDS, and 99- bp 3′-UTR, was obtained, and two alternative splicing isoforms were detected. The alternative splicing isoforms encoded 375- and 251-amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of Pekin duck MSTN was similar to other vertebrates and exhibited the highest similarity to chicken. The expression pattern of MSTN in breast muscle tissue showed a tendency to increase, except for a slight decrease at 6 weeks. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the Pekin duck MSTN gene by cDNA sequencing from different individuals. The T129C had significant association with breast muscle thickness, and the T952C had significant association with the fossilia ossis mastodi length. This study reveals the molecular characteristics of the Pekin duck MSTN gene and the relationship of its polymorphism with breast muscle traits in Pekin duck. Therefore, it can provide some useful basic understanding of MSTN functions. ©FUNPEC-RP. Source

Xu T.S.,Northwest University, China | Xu T.S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu T.S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gu L.H.,Northwest University, China | And 5 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015

Musculoskeletal embryonic nuclear protein 1 (MUSTN1) gene is involved in myogenic fusion and differentiation in rats. We previously showed the differential expression of MUSTN1 in week (W) 2 and W6 breast muscles of Pekin ducks. In this study, we further investigated its molecular characteristics and expression profiles in different tissues at W7 and in breast and leg muscles at W1, W3, W5, W7, and W9. The relationship between muscle development andmuscle fiber areas was also investigated. A 358-bp cDNA sequence was obtained. The coding sequence of duck MUSTN1 cDNA encoded a 78-amino acid sequence, which showed high similarity with those of other species (96% similarity with zebra finch and 94% with chicken). In addition, a 6435-bp genomic DNA sequence of MUSTN1 was obtained. In total, 231 transcription factor-binding sites were found in the promoter region, and many of these transcription factors were involved in the regulation of muscle development. MUSTN1 expression in breast muscle increased from W1 to W5 and then decreased at W9. In leg muscle, the expression increased from W1 to W3 and then decreased. The relative growth rates of breast and leg muscle fibers reached their peaks at W3-W5 and W1-W3, respectively. Since the greatest relative growth rates appeared at the highest expression levels of the MUSTN1 gene, it was thought to play roles in duck muscle development. Our findings would be helpful in understanding the molecular characteristics and functions of the MUSTN1 gene in breast muscle development of ducks. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

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