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Shi M.,University of Tsukuba | Shi M.,Hainan Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang Z.,University of Tsukuba | Yang Y.,University of Tsukuba
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

Four polysaccharides (GLP-I, GLP-II, GLP-III and GLP-IV) were obtained from fermented soybean curd residue by Ganoderma lucidum, and then purified using anion-exchange DEAE Sephadex A-50. Their structural characterization was conducted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their monosaccharide compositions were determined. The results demonstrated that the basic structural characterization of four polysaccharides were similar, however, monosaccharide compositions of four kinds of polysaccharides were significant difference. GLP-III and GLP-IV were composed of six kinds of monosaccharide. Nevertheless, GLP-II was composed of three kinds of monosaccharide. Moreover, their antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, reducing power, DPPH free radical, chelating activity, ABTS radical-scavenging and SOD-like activity. The results showed that four polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Among four polysaccharides, GLP-III and GLP-IV exhibited the higher scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals, ABTS radical, DPPH free radical, and stronger reducing power and SOD-like activity than GLP-I and GLP-II. In addition, treatment with 40 μg/mL of GLP showed significant stimulation to the macrophage proliferation and higher nitric oxide production. Overall, GLP from fermented SCR could have potential applications in the medical and food industries.

Xie L.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding | Xie L.,Hainan Academy of Agricultural science | Luo C.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding | Luo C.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Chicken growth traits are important economic traits in broilers. A large number of studies are available on finding genetic factors affecting chicken growth. However, most of these studies identified chromosome regions containing putative quantitative trait loci and finding causal mutations is still a challenge. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified a narrow 1.5 Mb region (173.5-175 Mb) of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome (GGA) 1 to be strongly associated with chicken growth using 47,678 SNPs and 489 F2 chickens. The growth traits included aggregate body weight (BW) at 0-90 d of age measured weekly, biweekly average daily gains (ADG) derived from weekly body weight, and breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW) and wing weight (WW) at 90 d of age. Five SNPs in the 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region at GGA1 had the highest significant effects for all growth traits in this study, including a SNP at 8.9 Kb upstream of FOXO1A for BW at 22-48 d and 70 d, a SNP at 1.9 Kb downstream of FOXO1A for WW, a SNP at 20.9 Kb downstream of ENSGALG00000022732 for ADG at 29-42 d, a SNP in INTS6 for BW at 90 d, and a SNP in KPNA3 for BMW and LMW. The 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region contained two microRNA genes that could bind to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of IGF1, FOXO1A and KPNA3. It was further indicated that the 1.5 Mb GGA1 region had the strongest effects on chicken growth during 22-42 d. © 2012 Xie et al.

Sun H.Y.,Northwest University, China | Sun H.Y.,Institute of Soil Ecology | Wang C.X.,Northwest University, China | Wang C.X.,Hainan Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2013

Over the past 20 years, conservation tillage has been used on the loess plateau of north-west China to improve the sustainability of local agriculture. There had been particular concern about loss of soil organic matter associated with traditional tillage. We examined the influence of four tillage treatments: conventional tillage (CT), subsoiling tillage (SST), rotary tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT), with two straw residue management treatments (return and removal) on the distribution with soil depth (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) of total organic carbon, labile organic carbon (KMnO4-C) and bound organic carbon. The study was carried out on a Loutu soil (Earth-cumuli-Orthic Anthrosol) over seven consecutive years of a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer maize (Zea mays L.) crop rotation. By the end of this period, conservation tillage (SST, RT and NT) led to greater storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) (22.7, 14.9 and 16.3% with straw return in contrast to 21.4, 15.8 and 12.3% with no straw return, respectively) compared with CT in the surface soil (0-20 cm). The reduced tillage treatments (SST and RT) both increased significantly the highly labile organic carbon (HLOC) content of the surface soil (50% in both SST and RT) and mildly labile organic matter (MLOC) (49.4 in SST and 53.5% in RT) when straw was removed. The largest pool of bound carbon was observed in the Humin-C pool, and the smallest in the free humic acids C (FHA-C) in each tillage treatment. Conservation tillage led to an increased content of FHA-C and CHA-C. Results from correlation analyses indicate that SOC enrichment might have resulted from the increase in HLOC, MLOC, FHA-C and CHA-C over a short period. Labile organic carbon was associated with the organic carbon that was more loosely combined with clay (FHA-C and CHA-C). We conclude that both SST and RT are effective in maintaining or restoring organic matter in Loutu soils in this region, and the effect is greater when they are used in combination with straw return. © 2013 British Society of Soil Science.

Zhu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu R.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Z.,Hainan Academy of Agricultural science
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Metallothioneins (MTs) are the cysteine-rich proteins with low molecular weight, which play important roles in maintaining intracellular ion homeostasis, detoxification of heavy metal ions and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a novel ethephon-induced metallothionein gene, designated as HbMT2, was isolated and characterized from Hevea brasiliensis. The HbMT2 cDNA contained a 237 bp open reading frame encoding 78 amino acids and the deduced protein showed high similarity to the type 2 MTs from other plant species. Expression analysis revealed more significant accumulation of HbMT2 transcripts in leaves and latex than in roots and barks. The transcription of HbMT2 in latex was strongly induced by ethephon and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress. Overproduction of recombinant HbMT2 protein gave the Escherichia coli cells more tolerance on Cu2+ and Zn2+, and the recombinant HbMT2 could scavenge the reactive oxidant species (ROS) in vitro. All these results indicated that HbMT2 could respond to ethephon stimulation and H2O2 stress as a ROS scavenger in H. brasiliensis. It is also suggested that HbMT2 function in improving the tolerance of rubber trees to heavy metal ions, and repressing the ethephon-induced senilism and tapping panel dryness (TPD) development by ROS scavenge system in H. brasiliensis. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Zhang Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Q.,Tropical Crop Research Institute | Zhu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ni Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2012

A full-length WRKY cDNA, designated as HbWRKY1, was isolated from the latex in Hevea brasiliensis. The deduced HbWRKY1 contained 303 amino acid residues with one WRKY domain and one zinc-finger motif, and shared high identity to WRKYs from other plant species. The phylogenetic tree showed that HbWRKY1 was classified into group-II WRKYs. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,377 bp-length 5′ regulatory sequence of HbWRKY1, including three W-boxes, three ABREs, two MYBCOREs, one PRE, two OSE2ROOTNODULEs, one SEBFCONSSTPR10A and two HSEs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed more significant accumulation of HbWRKY1 transcripts in latex and flowers than in bark, leaves and roots. The transcription of HbWRKY1 in latex was strongly induced by tapping and some wounding-signal molecules such as ethylene and jasmonic acid, and Oidium heveae attack, PEG and abscisic acid also strongly induced its expression in the leaves of H. brasiliensis. All these results suggest that HbWRKY1 mainly functions in responding to mechanical wounding, some wounding-related hormones, drought and O. heveae attack as an ethephon-induced WRKY transcriptional factor in H. brasiliensis. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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