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Li Y.,Hainan University | Li Y.,Haikou Key Laboratory of Environment Toxicology | Wei L.,Hainan University | Cao J.,Hainan Provincial Health School | And 7 more authors.

To evaluate the genotoxic and physiological effects of acute hypoxia on the pacific white shrimp (. L. vannamei), shrimps were treated firstly with three dissolved oxygen levels 6.5 ppm (control), 3.0 ppm and 1.5 ppm for 24 h, respectively, and then reoxygenated (6.5 ppm) for 24 h. The changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidases (GPX) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and DNA damage in the tissues of gill, hepatopancreas and hemolymph were examined during the period of hypoxia and reoxygenation. The results indicated SOD activity, GPX activity, MDA concentration and DNA damage all increased basically compared with the control during the period of hypoxia except for MDA concentrations in the gill at 12 h and 24 h hypoxia (3.0 ppm), and these parameters were recovered to some degree during the period of reoxygenation. Moreover, the comet assays in the tissues of gill and hepatopancreas showed an obvious time- and dose-dependent response to hypoxia, which indicated comet assay in the two tissues could be used as sensitive biomarker to detect the occurrence of hypoxia. We conclude that acute hypoxia can induce oxidative stress, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in the tissues of gill, hepatopancreas and hemolymph of L. vannamei and the DNA damage may come from hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wei L.,Hainan University | Li Y.,Hainan University | Qiu L.,Hainan University | Zhou H.,Hainan University | And 4 more authors.

Litopenaeus vannamei has a high commercial value and is the primary cultured shellfish species globally. In this study, we have compared the hemolymph physiological responses between two L. vannamei strains under acute hypoxia. The results showed that hemocyanin concentration (HC) of strain A6410 was significantly higher than strain Zhengda; Total hemocyte counts (THC) decreased significantly in both strains under hypoxic stress (p < 0.05). We also investigated the temporal and spatial variations of hypoxia inducible factors 1 (HIF-1) by qRT-PCR. The results showed that hypoxia for 12 h increased the expression levels of HIF-1α in tissues of muscle and gill from the two strains (p < 0.05). In the hepatopancreas, the expression levels of HIF-1 increased significantly in strain Zhengda and decreased significantly in strain A6410 (p < 0.05). No significant changes of HIF-1 expression were detected in the same tissues between the two strains under hypoxia for 6 h (p > 0.05), but in the gills and hepatopancreas under hypoxia for 12 h (p < 0.05). Additionally, the expression level of HIF-1 was higher in the strain Zhengda than A6410 in the same tissue under hypoxia for 12 h. It was indicated that the hypoxic tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei was closely correlated with the expression level of HIF-1, and the higher expression level of HIF-1 to hypoxia, the lower tolerance to hypoxia in the early stage of hypoxia. These results can help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance and speed up the selective breeding process of hypoxia tolerance in L. vannamei. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li Y.,Hainan University | Liu H.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Zhou H.,Hainan University | Zhou H.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | And 6 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin

To investigate the pollution level and evaluate the potential health risks of heavy metals, the concentrations of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), and lead (Pb) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 198 clams (Mactra veneriformis) collected from 11 sites of the Bohai Bay. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in the clams were different at different sites (p<0.05). Mn was dominant with a percentage of 22.08-77.03% in heavy metals, followed by Zn with 12.66-57.11%, and the concentration of Pb was the lowest with 0.45-1.04%. The potential health risk to consumers was evaluated by the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the maximum daily consumption rate (CRmax). The results indicated that the THQs of Co were the highest with the values of 1.125, 1.665, and 1.144 at three sections; the values of other individual metals were <1, which indicated that consumption of clams from the study areas caused health risks due to Co. Moreover, the CRmax values also indicated the potential health risk caused by Co in clams consumed in this area. Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that there were significantly positive or negative correlations between the heavy metals (p<0.05), and the studied metals were divided into four groups. The results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals in clams were affected not only by pollution sources but also by the characteristics of clams that could absorb selectively and accumulate special metals. This study offers important information on the pollution levels of heavy metals in clams and warns consumers of the health risks associated with the consumption of clams in the area. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li Y.,Hainan University | Li Y.,Haikou Key Laboratory of Environment Toxicology | Li P.,Haikou Key Laboratory of Environment Toxicology | Li P.,Hainan University | And 7 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Spatial and temporal distributions of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surface waters of Haikou Bay, China from October 2013 to September 2014. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 420.2 to 2539.1ngL-1 with the average value of 1016.3±455.8ngL-1, which were predominated by low molecular weight PAHs (2-and 3-ring PAHs). Moreover, PAHs displayed spatial and temporal variations in the concentration and composition pattern. Source analysis based on isomer ratios indicated that the PAHs mostly originated from petroleum and combustion processes. An eco-toxicological risk assessment showed that the potential risk of individual PAHs had reached moderate to high levels and the total concentrations of PAHs had also reached a relatively high level compared with previous studies. This study offers important information on the pollution levels of 14 PAHs in the surface waters of Haikou Bay and recommends that prevention and control of PAHs pollution should be implemented in the region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li P.,Hainan University | Li P.,Haikou Key Laboratory of Environment Toxicology | Cao J.,Hainan University | Cao J.,Haikou Key Laboratory of Environment Toxicology | And 9 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin

The occurrence of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency was investigated in surface seawater of Yangpu Bay, China in November 2013 (winter) and May 2014 (summer). Seventy-two samples were collected from 12 sampling sites. The total concentrations of PAHs in Yangpu Bay showed obvious variations in different seasons, which varied from 582.8 to 2208.3ngL-1 in winter and 952.4 to 1201.7 ng L-1 in summer, respectively. Two-ring PAHs accounted for more than 91.6% of total PAHs in winter, and three-ring PAHs were dominant with 81.6% of total PAHs in summer. Molecular indices analyses indicated that the main source of PAHs in Yangpu Bay could be petrogenic contamination. The ecological risk assessment by Risk quotients (RQNCs and RQMPCs) showed a potential ecological risk of PAHs in Yangpu Bay, indicating a close attention should be paid to pollution of PAHs in the coastal area of Yangpu. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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