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Hu L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yun B.,Haid Group | Xue M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

An 8-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the quality of fish meal and of replacing prime steam dried fish meal (PFM) with an animal protein blend (APB with 40% poultry by-product meal, 35% meat and bone meal, 20% spray-dried blood meal and 5% hydrolyzed feather meal) on the growth performance, flesh quality and liver histology of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus (initial body weight, 76.3±0.2g). Six isoproteic (44% crude protein) and isoenergetic (19MJkg-1 gross energy) diets were formulated. A control diet containing 40% PFM was designed, and 20%, 40%, 60% or 80% of the PFM was replaced by APB, in which lysine, methionine and threonine were balanced as in the control diet with crystallized amino acids; the diets were named PFM, APB20, APB40, APB60 and APB80, respectively. An additional diet with 50% standard steam dried fish meal (SFM) that completely replaced the PFM was formulated with the same profile as the control diet to compare the effect of fishmeal quality. Compared to that of fish fed the PFM diet, feed intake was significantly reduced in the SFM group and accordingly induced a lower specific growth rate (SGR, P<0.05), but this did not significantly affect the feed efficiency rate. Fish fed the diets APB20 and APB40 had comparable growth with those fed the diet PFM (control diet). Fish fed the diet with 24% or higher APB had significantly lower SGR than those fed the diet PFM (P<0.05). The reduced growth was linearly correlated to the graded lower dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) levels when PFM was replaced by APB. Broken-line analysis on the basis of SGR showed that the optimal level of fish meal replacement with APB was only 18.9%. Fish fed the diet with 24% or higher APB had significantly lower whole-body lipids but higher liver lipids than the PFM group (P<0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 fatty acids, n-3 HUFA and the n-3/n-6 ratio in muscle were significantly reduced at higher substitution levels of PFM by APB (P<0.05). The 18:1n-9, EPA, DHA, PUFA, n-3, n-3 HUFA and n-3/n-6 in fish muscle were significantly correlated with the corresponding dietary contents. There were no significant differences in texture parameters for the raw fillets groups, while some differences were found in the cooked fillets groups. Except for the values of "favorite", the sensory evaluation of the muscle did not reveal significant differences among the PFM, SFM, APB60 and APB80 groups. Fish fed the PFM and SFM diets exhibited normal liver histological structure. However, high levels of substitution of PFM by APB might induce hepatic steatosis for this species. However, the adverse effects cannot be ignored when the total PFM is replaced by SFM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Yun B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yun B.,Haid Group | Xue M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2014

An 8-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a plant protein blend (PPB, comprised of soybean meal and wheat gluten meal) as fishmeal (FM) substitute on growth, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance in Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt. Two control diets were formulated to contain two protein levels (400 and 360 g kg-1). At each protein level, FM was totally replaced by PPB with supplement of crystalline essential amino acids and mono-calcium phosphate. Growth performance was not affected by dietary protein sources and protein levels. Fish fed the low-protein diets had higher FI than that of the high protein groups, while fish fed the FM-based diets had higher FI than that of fish fed the PPB-based diets. N/P intake of fish showed linear relationship with total N/P loss. The productive P value was significantly affected by dietary protein sources, but no significant effects were shown on productive N value. The results suggest that Siberian sturgeon fed total plant-based diets with balance of EAA could maintain normal growth performance and reduce total P excretion both at 360 and 400 g kg-1 protein levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Yun B.,Ocean University of China | Yun B.,Haid Group | Qian X.,Haid Group | Ai Q.,Ocean University of China | Xue H.,Haid Group
Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh | Year: 2014

An 8-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on growth performance and cholesterol metabolism of juvenile snakehead (Ophiocephalus argus). Six isonitrogenous (crude protein 47%) and isolipidic (crude lipid 11.5%) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0 (D1, control), 6.2 (D2), 12.3 (D3), 18.5 (D4), 22.2 (D5), and 28.4% (D6) fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant difference in survival rate was found among dietary treatments (P>0.05). No significant differences were observed in feed intake (FI), final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), feed efficiency rate (FER) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed D1-D3 (P>0.05). However, these indices significantly decreased with increasing CGM protein from 18.5%(D4) to 28.4%(D6) of diet (P<0.05). Whole-body lipid content of fish fed D6 (28.4%) was significantly lower than that of fish fed D1 (control) (P<0.05). The plasma and liver total cholesterol, free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels were affected by dietary CGM protein levels. Broken line analysis based on WGR or PPV indicated that the maximum CGM protein level for the optimal growth of juvenile snakehead was 12.06% or 12.56% respectively. © 2014 Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh. All Rights reserved. Source

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