Kolb H.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Mandrup-Poulsen T.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Mandrup-Poulsen T.,Copenhagen University |
Mandrup-Poulsen T.,Karolinska Institutet
Diabetologia | Year: 2010
The recent major increase in the global incidence of type 2 diabetes suggests that most cases of this disease are caused by changes in environment and lifestyle. All major risk factors for type 2 diabetes (overnutrition, low dietary fibre, sedentary lifestyle, sleep deprivation and depression) have been found to induce local or systemic low-grade inflammation that is usually transient or milder in individuals not at risk for type 2 diabetes. By contrast, inflammatory responses to lifestyle factors are more pronounced and prolonged in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and appear to occur also in the pancreatic islets. Chronic low-grade inflammation will eventually lead to overt diabetes if counter-regulatory circuits to inflammation and metabolic stress are compromised because of a genetic and/or epigenetic predisposition. Hence, it is not the lifestyle change per se but a deficient counter-regulatory response in predisposed individuals which is crucial to disease pathogenesis. Novel approaches of intervention may target these deficient defence mechanisms. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Mandrup-Poulsen T.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Pickersgill L.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Donath M.Y.,University of Zürich
Nature Reviews Endocrinology | Year: 2010
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a 17 kDa protein highly conserved through evolution and is a key mediator of inflammation, fever and the acute-phase response. IL-1 has important functions in the innate immune defense against microbes, trauma and stress, and is also an effector molecule involved in tissue destruction and fibrosis. The inhibition of IL-1 action has clinical efficacy in many inflammatory diseases, such as hereditary autoinflammatory disorders, familial hereditary fever, gout, rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The latter is a common metabolic condition caused by insulin resistance and pancreatic Β-cell failure, the causes of both of which have inflammatory components. IL-1 signaling has roles in Β-cell dysfunction and destruction via the NFB and mitogen-activated-protein-kinase pathways, leading to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress and eventually activating the apoptotic machinery. In addition, IL-1 acts on T-lymphocyte regulation. The modulating effect of IL-1 on the interaction between the innate and adaptive immune systems and the effects of IL-1 on the Β-cell point to this molecule being a potential interventional target in autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Genetic or pharmacological abrogation of IL-1 action reduces disease incidence in animal models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and clinical trials have been started to study the feasibility, safety and efficacy of IL-1 therapy in patients with T1DM. Here, we review the rationale for blocking IL-1 in patients with T1DM. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Engberg N.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Kahn M.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Petersen D.R.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Hansson M.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Serup P.,Hagedorn Research Institute
Stem Cells | Year: 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate spontaneously toward a neuroectodermal fate in serum-free, adherent monocultures. Here, we show that this spontaneous neural fate requires retinoic acid (RA) synthesis. We monitor ES cells containing reporter genes for markers of the early neural plate as well as the primitive streak and its progeny to determine the cell fates induced when RA signaling is perturbed. We demonstrate that the spontaneous neural commitment of mouse ES cells requires endogenous RA production from vitamin A (vitA) in the medium. Formation of neural progenitors is inhibited by removing vitA from the medium, by inhibiting the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of RA, or by inhibiting RA receptors. We show that subnanomolar concentrations of RA restore neuroectodermal differentiation when RA synthesis is blocked. We demonstrate that a neural to mesodermal fate change occurring when RA signaling is inhibited is dependent on Nodal-, Wnt-, and fibroblast growth factor-signaling. We show that Nodal suppresses neural development in a Wnt-dependent manner and that Wnt-mediated inhibition of neural development is reversed by inhibition of Nodal signaling. Together, our results show that neural induction in ES cells requires RA at subnanomolar levels to suppress Nodal signaling and suggest that the mechanism by which Wnt signaling suppresses neural development is through facilitation of Nodal signaling. © AlphaMed Press.
Knudsen L.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
De Meyts P.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Kiselyov V.V.,Hagedorn Research Institute
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2011
More than 20 years after the description of the two IR (insulin receptor) isoforms, designated IR-A (lacking exon 11) and IR-B (with exon 11), nearly every functional aspect of the alternative splicing both in vitro and in vivo remains controversial. In particular, there is no consensus on the precise ligand-binding properties of the isoforms. Increased affinity and dissociation kinetics have been reported for IR-A in comparison with IRB, but the opposite results have also been reported. These are not trivial issues considering the reported possible increased mitogenic potency of IR-A, and the reported link between slower dissociation and increased mitogenesis. We have re-examined the ligand-binding properties of the two isoforms using a novel rigorous mathematical analysis based on the concept of a harmonic oscillator. We found that insulin has 1.5-fold higher apparent affinity towards IR-A and a 2-fold higher overall dissociation rate. Analysis based on the model showed increased association (3-fold) and dissociation (2-fold) rate constants for binding site 1 of IR in comparison with IR-B. We also provide a structural interpretation of these findings on the basis of the structure of the IR ectodomain and the proximity of the sequence encoded by exon 11 to the C-terminal peptide that is a critical trans-component of site 1. ©The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society.
Peterslund J.M.L.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Serup P.,Hagedorn Research Institute
Stem Cell Research | Year: 2011
Activin induces the formation of definitive endoderm from mouse ES cells dependent on active fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling. Here we report that Fgf4 is dispensable for activin A-induced differentiation of mouse ES cells into endoderm. We find that Fgf4-/- cells readily differentiate into definitive endoderm without exogenous administration of Fgf4. Additionally, we investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of Fgf receptor (FGFR) isoform distribution in activin A-treated ES cell cultures and find that FGFR(III)c isoforms are expressed in DE as well as non-DE populations, whereas FGFR2(III)b and FGFR4 are found specifically enriched in the DE fraction. Ligands that preferentially activate the FGFR(III)c isoforms induce mesendoderm markers T and Gsc, but reduce expression of the DE marker Sox17 in activin-induced EpCAM+ cells. In contrast, ligands specifically activating FGFR(III)b isoforms have no effect on either population. Activation of FGFR(III)c isoforms results in a strong mitogenic effect on activin A-induced ES cell progeny early in the differentiation period whereas activation of FGFR(III)b isoforms has only a moderate mitogenic effect confined to the late differentiation period. We conclude that FGFR(III)c-isoform activation selectively drives the differentiation of mES cells toward mesendoderm and that Fgf4 is dispensable for the differentiation into definitive endoderm. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Winzi M.K.,Hagedorn Research Institute
Stem cells and development | Year: 2011
The homeobox gene Noto is expressed in the node and its derivative the notochord. Here we use a targeted Noto-GFP reporter to isolate and characterize node/notochord-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. We find very few Noto-expressing cells after spontaneous differentiation. However, the number of Noto-expressing cells was increased when using Activin A to induce a Foxa2- and Brachyury-expressing progenitor population, whose further differentiation into Noto-expressing cells was improved by simultaneous inhibition of BMP, Wnt, and retinoic acid signaling. Noto-GFP(+) cells expressed the node/notochord markers Noto, Foxa2, Shh, Noggin, Chordin, Foxj1, and Brachyury; showed a vacuolarization characteristic of notochord cells; and can integrate into midline structures when grafted into Hensen's node of gastrulating chicken embryos. The ability to generate node/notochord-like cells in vitro will aid the biochemical characterization of these developmentally important structures.
Cucak H.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Grunnet L.G.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Rosendahl A.,Hagedorn Research Institute
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2014
Human T2D is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation, loss of β-cells, and diminished insulin production. Local islet immunity is still poorly understood, and hence, we evaluated macrophage subpopulations in pancreatic islets in the well-established murine model of T2D, the db/db mouse. Already at 8 weeks of disease, on average, 12 macrophages were observed in the diabetic islets, whereas only two were recorded in the nondiabetic littermates. On a detailed level, the islet resident macrophages increased fourfold compared with nondiabetic littermates, whereas a pronounced recruitment (eightfold) of a novel subset of macrophages (CD68+F4/80-) was observed. The majority of the CD68+F4/80+ but only 40% of the CD68+F4/80- islet macrophages expressed CD11b. Both islet-derived macrophage subsets expressed moderate MHC-II, high galectin-3, and low CD80/CD86 levels, suggesting the cells to be macrophages rather than DCs. On a functional level, the vast majority of the macrophages in the diabetic islets was of the proinflammatory, M1-like phenotype. The systemic immunity in diabetic animals was characterized by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase of splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages. In late-stage diabetes, the cytokine signature changed toward a TGF-β-dominated profile, coinciding with a significant increase of galectin-3-positive macrophages in the spleen. In summary, our results show that proinflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86low macrophages invade diabetic islets. Moreover, the innate immunity matures in a diabetes-dependent manner from an initial proinflammatory toward a profibrotic phenotype, supporting the concept that T2D is an inflammatory disease. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Grarup N.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Sparso T.,Hagedorn Research Institute
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2010
For the past two decades, genetics has been widely explored as a tool for unraveling the pathogenesis of diabetes. Many risk alleles for type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia have been detected in recent years through massive genome-wide association studies and evidence exists that most of these variants influence pancreatic β-cell function. However, risk alleles in five loci seem to have a primary impact on insulin sensitivity. Investigations of more detailed physiologic phenotypes, such as the insulin response to intravenous glucose or the incretion hormones, are now emerging and give indications of more specific pathologic mechanisms for diabetes-related risk variants. Such studies have shed light on the function of some loci but also underlined the complex nature of disease mechanism. In the future, sequencing-based discovery of low-frequency variants with higher impact on intermediate diabetes-related traits is a likely scenario and identification of new pathways involved in type 2 diabetes predisposition will offer opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches. © 2010 The Author(s).
Andersen B.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Beck-Nielsen H.,University of Southern Denmark |
Hojlund K.,University of Southern Denmark
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2011
Objective Fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) is a potent regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. In rodents, the hepatic expression of FGF21 is controlled by fasting and a circadian regulation, but the physiological role and regulation of FGF21 in humans is not well established. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the 24-h profiling of plasma FGF21 during a 72-h fast. Study design After an initial 12-h overnight fast, plasma levels of FGF21 together with circulating levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured every 6 h during a 72-h fast in healthy female volunteers (n = 14). Results During the fast, plasma glucose and serum insulin gradually decreased whilst glucagon and FFA levels increased. Mean 24-h plasma FGF21 levels did not increase during the 72-h fast, but, despite large inter-individually variations, a significant circadian rhythm was observed. Thus, during the first day, plasma FGF21 increased from 125 pg/ml (16-142) at 8.30 a.m to peak levels of 224 pg/ml (88-326) at 2.30 a.m (P = 0 ·0215), the second day from 60 pg/ml (7-74) at 8.30 a.m to 268 pg/ml (103-410) at 2.30 a.m. (P = 0 ·0010) and the third day from 94 pg/ml (9-146) to 151 pg/ml (87-207) at 2.30 a.m. (P = 0 ·0049). Cortisol also showed circadian regulation and peaked at 8.30 a.m every day, 6 h after the observed FGF21 peak. Conclusion Plasma FGF21 follows a circadian rhythm during a 72-h fast in healthy female subjects. The circadian regulation has a stronger impact on plasma FGF21 than the fasting status over 72-h period. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Heller R.S.,Hagedorn Research Institute
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010
In the past 20 years, numerous publications on a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species have appeared in the literature to supplement the excellent comparative work performed in the 70s and 80s by the Falkmer, Epple, and Youson groups. What emerges is that islets are much more complex than once thought and show a lot of similarities in rodents and higher primates. The diversity of lifestyles, metabolic demands, and diets has most likely influenced the great diversity in both structure and cell-type content of islets in lower vertebrate species. In this chapter, I try to provide an overview of the evolution from endocrine cell types in invertebrates to the higher mammals and focus on what has been reported in the literature and some of our own experiences and also include a description of other hormones reported to be found in islets. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.