Haffkine Institute For Training

Parel, India

Haffkine Institute For Training

Parel, India
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PubMed | 2 Serum Institute of India Research Foundation and Haffkine Institute for Training
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viral immunology | Year: 2016

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) are vaccine preventable viral infections, which cause significant mortality and morbidity globally. Increased incidence rates of these infectious diseases are observed in young adults. Information on seroprevalence data on MMR in India is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IgG antibodies against MMR among young adults. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 192 healthy college students from Maharshi Dayanand College, Mumbai. The project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Haffkine Institute. Between December 2012 and September 2013, blood samples were collected from individuals of age 18-23 years after obtaining written informed consent from them. The quantitative determination of IgG antibodies in serum specimens against MMR was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Data on history of vaccination were also collected from participants. Among 192 healthy college students (age 18-23 years), MMR seroprevalence was 91%, 97%, and 88%, respectively. The overall seropositivity of MMR was 79%. The highest level of seronegativity was seen with regards to rubella-specific antibodies in 12% of cases. About 96% of the participants did not know about their vaccination history while none of the participants knew about their history of MMR infections. Despite unknown vaccination status, a majority of college students in our study were found seropositive for all three infections, which indicate natural boosting. However, the proportion of seronegativity for measles and rubella was relatively higher. Especially since the study population belonged to reproductive age group, there is a concern of congenital rubella syndrome in the offspring. Although a larger multicentric study is required to confirm the findings, the results indicate that a dose of measles-rubella (MR) vaccine should be offered to these college students.

Mehta S.M.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Banerjee S.M.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Chowdhary A.S.,Haffkine Institute for Training
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2015

Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind. The pathogenic mechanisms by which rabies virus infection leads to development of neurological disease and death are still poorly understood. Analysis of rabies-infected proteomes may help identify novel biomarkers for antemortem diagnosis of the disease and target molecules for therapeutic intervention. This article offers a literature synthesis and critique of the differentially expressed proteins that have been previously reported from various in vitro/in vivo model systems and naturally infected clinical specimens. The emerging data collectively indicate that, in addition to the obvious alterations in proteins involved in synapse and neurotransmission, a majority of cytoskeletal proteins are relevant as well, providing evidence of neuronal degeneration. An interesting observation is that certain molecules, such as KPNA4, could be potential diagnostic markers for rabies. Importantly, proteomic studies with body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid provide newer insights into antemortem diagnosis. In order to develop a complete integrative biology picture, it is essential to analyze the entire CNS (region-wise) and in particular, the brain. We suggest the use of laboratory animal models over cell culture systems using a combinatorial proteomics approach, as the former is a closer match to the actual host response. While most studies have focused on the terminal stages of the disease in mice, a time-series analysis could provide deeper insights for therapy. Postgenomics technologies such as proteomics warrant more extensive applications in rabies and similar diseases impacting public health around the world. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

Taishete S.,Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas | Chowdhary A.,Haffkine Institute for Training
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2016

Context: HCWs all over the world carry occupational risk of getting infected with major blood borne infections through needle stick injuries (NSIs). As health care industry has been expanding, risk of nosocomial infections is increasing proportionately. Measures to prevent it and put in place a mechanism to control these injuries are needed urgently, especially in India where there is not only increase in domestic demand but impetus in health tourism. Aim: To determine HBs Ag, HBc IgM level and to assess anti-HBs level prevalence in HCWs, in a tertiary care hospital and to study the influence of factors like age and sex in the vaccinated HCWs and formulate mechanism to increase awareness to create a safe working environment in the hospitals. Settings and Design: 437 HCWs, working in Laboratories, Surgical, Medical or Dental departments in 11 Civil Hospitals and Sub-district Hospitals covering 8 circles of the State. Methods and Material: Qualitative and Quantitative estimation of HBs Ag and Anti-HBs by sandwich ELISA technique and qualitative HBc IgM level by antibody-capture, non-competitive test. Liver profile (SGPT, SGOT and Alkaline Phosphatase) by IFCC method done. Statistical Analysis Used: Tabulation and Pie Circle Result: 193 of the total 229 vaccinated HCWs tested positive for core antibody, meaning that they were infected prior to HBs Ag vaccination, leaving a total of 36 'truly' vaccinated HCWs. 11 HBs Ag positive HCWs were tested for Liver Profile and all had ALAT, ASAT and ALP within normal range. Out of total number of 141 HCWs having 10 and below IU/L anti HBs, 5 HCWs were positive for HBS Ag, showing a positivity of 3.5%. Conclusion: Need of vaccination and for post-vaccination serological testing of all HCWs considering the high rates of non-responders and low responders (anti-HBs-34.2%). Importance of educating the HCWs of safety precautions while handling body fluids, and the management of ' sharps ' injuries. © 2016 Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.

Rege A.A.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Ambaye R.Y.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Deshmukh R.A.,Haffkine Institute for Training
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2012

Three tropical medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum Linn., Withania somnifera Dunal and Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thoms. and two mangrove medicinal plants, Avicennia officinalis Linn. and Rhizophora mucronata Lam. were taken up in the present study along with Shilajit. Three extracts, petroleum ether, ethanol (successive) and aqueous were prepared from each plant, whereas, only 2 extracts of Shilajit, ethanol (successive) and aqueous were included for the in vitro study. Thus a total of 17 extracts were evaluated for their effect on HIV-reverse transcriptase of 2 clinical isolates, designated as non-antiretroviral therapy (non-ART, from drug naïve patient) and antiretroviral therapy (ART, from drug-treated patient), by reverse transcriptase inhibition assay. The virus stocks were prepared by standard co-cultivation method. Eleven of the 17 extracts showed more than or equal to 50% (≥50%) inhibition of non-ART isolate whereas, only 9 of the 17 extracts showed ≥50% inhibition of ART isolate. In general, Shilajit extracts showed ≥50% inhibition of both the clinical isolates. Furthermore, different combinations of aqueous extracts were assessed for their effect on reverse transcriptase of non-ART isolate. Combination of A. officinalis and Shilajit showed the highest inhibition of viral enzyme. However, the lowest inhibition was noted with combination of W. somnifera and T. cordifolia.

Asrondkar A.L.,Haffkine Institute For Training | Patil V.N.,Haffkine Institute For Training | Mishra N.U.,Haffkine Institute For Training | Bobade A.S.,Haffkine Institute For Training | Chowdhary A.S.,Haffkine Institute For Training
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2013

Thiazolidinone was synthesized by using Thiourea and chloroethylacetate. Chromene derivative were synthesized by Vilsmeier-Hack reaction using substituted Hydroxy Benzoic Acid. Initially synthesized Thiazolidinone and Chromene derivative were condensed using alcohol as a solvent. Further synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental&spectroscopic analysis. Compounds were further evaluated for in-vitro Anti-Inflammatory activity.

Bhatt R.S.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Kothari S.T.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Gohil D.J.,Haffkine Institute for Training | D'Souza M.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Chowdhary A.S.,Haffkine Institute for Training
Immunobiology | Year: 2015

Dengue, the most rampant zoonotic viral disease in tropics, contributes to 14% of acute febrile illness cases globally. Encephalitis in primary Dengue fever, with/without haemorrhage has been reported occasionally. Our study presents novel evidence for this rarity at the molecular level. Murine microglia (BV2) were infected in-vitro with Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (1-4) and their immune response was evaluated. Gene expressions of TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL1-β constituted the pro-inflammatory response, levels of MCP-1 and IL-6 represented the regulatory mechanism and changes in the levels of Occludin, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 encompassed the break-down of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Cytokine response was studied using RT-PCR, with relative fold change assessed using ΔΔCt method. We observed that DENV1 increased vascular permeability and trans-membrane transport, while DENV2 resulted in oxidative stress. DENV3 infection presented with impaired immune response and DENV4 manifested a chaotropic response of the BBB protein genes. However, no serotype was able to breakdown the BBB, thus validating the low prevalence of encephalitis in dengue. Our study is the first reported evidence of the microglial immune response resisting the entry of DENV into the CNS. It also supports the theory that primary Dengue infection results in the acute inflammation of the microglia, and the host immune response plays a critical role in development of encephalitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Panchal R.,Institute of Management Sciences | Mukerjee S.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Chowdhary A.,Haffkine Institute for Training
International Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Dengue fever has become one of the most important human viral diseases transmitted by arthropod vector in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. As many as 100 million people are infected yearly resulting in estimated 21,000 deaths. DENV has four antigenically related but genetically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). Infection with any of the four serotypes may present as asymptomatic or self limiting mild febrile illness known as dengue fever (DF). However, in some dengue-infected individual, the disease progresses to its severe, life-threatening form, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) which may prove fatal without proper early intervention. The pathogenesis of DHF/DSS, however, is not yet completely understood. There are several possible reasons why the primary mild disease progresses to severe form of hemorrhagic manifestations in some individuals. The immune response, Antibody dependent enhancement, virus virulence, and host genetic background are considered risk factors contributing to disease severity. Genetic polymorphisms concerning human leukocyte antigens (HLA) with immunomodulatory effect in dengue infection have been determined in various studies. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are highly polymorphic group of genes located on chromosome 6 of human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLAs expressed on the cell surface function as antigen presenting molecules and that polymorphism can change individual's immune response. The development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) has been associated with HLA alleles. Several studies demonstrate the association of various identified versions (alleles) of HLA class I and class II with conferring susceptibility or protection to DHF/DSS. This review discusses recently identified associations of various HLA class I and class II alleles on enhanced or diminished immune response in the course of dengue viral infection, in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. © Kamla-Raj 2012.

Rege A.A.,Haffkine Institute for Training | Ambaye R.Y.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Deshmukh R.A.,Haffkine Institute for Training
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2010

Medicinal plants namely Ocimum sanctum Linn., Withania somnifera Dunal, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. & Thoms., Avicennia officinalis Linn. and Rhizophora mucronata Lam. were screened for anti-HIV activity in the present study. O. sanctum, T. cordifolia, A. officinalis and R. mucronata showed anti-HIV potential by inhibiting the virus by 2 different mechanisms. Interference with the gp120/CD4 interaction and inhibition of viral Reverse Transcriptase (RT) contributed to the overall anti-viral activity in vitro. Among these plants A. officinalis and R. mucronata are mangrove plants and their medicinal properties are rarely reported.

PubMed | Haffkine Institute for Training
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of postgraduate medicine | Year: 2016

Rabies poses a serious public health concern in developing countries such as India.The study focuses on molecular diagnosis of street rabies virus (RABV) from human clinical specimens received from Maharashtra, India.Nucleoprotein gene from eight (of total 20 suspected samples) rabies cases that tested positive for rabies antigen using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were sequenced.Sequence analysis using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and phylogenetic analysis showed similarity to previously reported sequences from India and those of Arctic lineages.The circulating RABV strains in Maharashtra, India show genetic relatedness to RABV strains reported from Indo-Arctic lineages and India-South and Japan.

PubMed | 2 Institute of Bioinformatics and Haffkine Institute for Training
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Omics : a journal of integrative biology | Year: 2016

Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that invariably leads to fatal encephalitis, which can be prevented provided post-exposure prophylaxis is initiated timely. Ante-mortem diagnostic tests are inconclusive, and rabies is nontreatable once the clinical signs appear. A large number of host factors are responsible for the altered neuronal functions observed in rabies; however their precise role remains uninvestigated. We therefore used two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis to identify differentially expressed host proteins in an experimental murine model of rabies. We identified 143 proteins corresponding to 45 differentially expressed spots (p < 0.05) in neuronal tissues of Swiss albino mice in response to infection with neurovirulent rabies strains. Time series analyses revealed that a majority of the alterations occur at 4 to 6 days post infection, in particular affecting the hosts cytoskeletal architecture. Extensive pathway analysis and protein interaction studies using the bioinformatic tools such as Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and STRING revealed novel pathways and molecules (e.g., protein ubiquitination) unexplored hitherto. Further activation/inhibition studies of these pathway molecular leads would be relevant to identify novel biomarkers and mechanism-based therapeutics for rabies, a disease that continues to severely impact global health.

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