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Rahe-Meyer N.,Franziskus Hospital | Rahe-Meyer N.,Hannover Medical School | Solomon C.,Salzburger Landeskliniken SALK | Solomon C.,Hannover Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2013

Background: Fibrinogen is suggested to play an important role in managing major bleeding. However, clinical evidence regarding the effect of fibrinogen concentrate (derived from human plasma) on transfusion is limited. The authors assessed whether fibrinogen concentrate can reduce blood transfusion when given as intraoperative, targeted, first-line hemostatic therapy in bleeding patients undergoing aortic replacement surgery. METHODS: In this single-center, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, patients aged 18 yr or older undergoing elective thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic replacement surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass were randomized to fibrinogen concentrate or placebo, administered intraoperatively. Study medication was given if patients had clinically relevant coagulopathic bleeding immediately after removal from cardiopulmonary bypass and completion of surgical hemostasis. Dosing was individualized using the fibrin-based thromboelastometry test. If bleeding continued, a standardized transfusion protocol was followed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group and 32 patients in the placebo group were eligible for the efficacy analysis. During the first 24 h after the administration of study medication, patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group received fewer allogeneic blood components than did patients in the placebo group (median, 2 vs. 13 U; P < 0.001; primary endpoint). Total avoidance of transfusion was achieved in 13 (45%) of 29 patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group, whereas 32 (100%) of 32 patients in the placebo group received transfusion (P < 0.001). There was no observed safety concern with using fibrinogen concentrate during aortic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Hemostatic therapy with fibrinogen concentrate in patients undergoing aortic surgery significantly reduced the transfusion of allogeneic blood products. Larger multicenter studies are necessary to confirm the role of fibrinogen concentrate in the management of perioperative bleeding in patients with life-threatening coagulopathy. Copyright © 2012, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Jensen M.S.,Aarhus University Hospital | Jensen M.S.,Haemostasis Research Unit | Larsen O.H.,Aarhus University Hospital | Larsen O.H.,Haemostasis Research Unit | And 8 more authors.
Haemophilia | Year: 2013

This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated by tissue factor evaluated by means of impedance aggregometry. Citrated whole blood from healthy volunteers and haemophilia A patients with the addition of inhibitors of the contact pathway and fibrin polymerization was evaluated. In healthy persons, a second wave of platelet aggregation was found to coincide with the thrombin burst and to be abolished by thrombin inhibitors. In this system, platelet aggregation in severe haemophilia A (n = 10) was found to be significantly decreased as compared with healthy individuals (912 ± 294 vs. 1917 ± 793 AU × min, P = 0.003), most probably due to the weak level of thrombin generation. For the first time, analysis of platelet aggregation as induced by endogenously generated thrombin was demonstrated. The new method makes it possible to explore the influence of the coagulation system on platelet function. In contrast to the general understanding, the data suggest that the impaired thrombin generation in haemophilia may affect platelet activation. Future studies will address whether our results may contribute to understanding differences in bleeding phenotypes and response to haemostatic substitution observed among patients. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Sorensen B.,Haemostasis Research Unit | Sorensen B.,King's College London | Sorensen B.,Aarhus University Hospital | Sorensen B.,University of Aarhus | And 10 more authors.
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis | Year: 2012

Coagulation factor I (fibrinogen) plays an essential role in the hemostatic system by bridging activated platelets and being the key substrate for thrombin in establishing a consolidating fibrin network. Fibrinogen is synthesized in the liver and the plasma concentration is 1 to 5-4.0 g/L. During recent 10 years, fibrinogen has been recognized to play an important role in controlling hemorrhage. Dilutional coagulopathy induced by colloid plasma expanders is characterized by fibrinogen deficiency and dysfunctional fibrin polymerization. Trauma and use of extracorporeal circulation is also known to reduce levels of fibrinogen. A series of laboratory experiments and experimental animal studies have suggested fibrinogen as a potent hemostatic agent. These data are supported by retrospective surveys as well as a series of prospective proof of principal clinical trials. This article provides a description of the biochemistry and mechanisms of fibrinogen as well as the etiology for developing fibrinogen deficiency. Furthermore, it summarizes laboratory and experimental data on the role of fibrinogen in dilutional coagulopathy and addresses laboratory monitoring issues. Finally, it lists retrospective and prospective studies, which have been designed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of hemostatic intervention with fibrinogen concentrate. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.


Dargaud Y.,University of Lyon | Sorensen B.,Haemostasis Research Unit | Shima M.,Nara Medical University | Hayward C.,McMaster University | And 2 more authors.
Haemophilia | Year: 2012

The evaluation of the coagulation profile has used so far either clotting-based or chromogenic assays with different endpoints. Clotting-based techniques are the most used worldwide, and they certainly are useful for diagnosis of clotting factor deficiencies. However, the information provided is relatively limited, and therefore the individual profile of coagulation is poorly assessed. This is reflected by the weak correlation between the results of these assays and the clinical phenotype. Among the assays that benefited from technological advances, thrombin generation and thromboelastography are probably the most actively investigated, but they require specific instruments and are not fully automated. Their standardisation level is rapidly progressing, and they are progressively entering the clinical scene, with the attempt to provide additional information on the coagulation process and a meaningful clinical correlation. These inherited bleeding disorders frequently require replacement therapy using clotting factor concentrates that increase the plasma level of the missing clotting factor. The classical adjustment of the therapy is mainly based on the measurement of the plasma clotting activity of the protein administered. If one considers that a certain level of thrombin generated would predict clinical efficacy, monitoring of thrombin formation might offer new possibilities to individually predict the bleeding phenotype, select the most adapted therapeutic product and tailor the dose. The same holds true for thromboelastography/thromboelastometry which evaluate fibrin formation as well as clot resistance to fibrinolytic challenge, one step further down in the coagulation process. In this regard, these 2 assays could be seen as complementary in terms of information provided on the coagulation profile at the individual level. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Arachchillage D.J.,Haemostasis Research Unit | Cohen H.,University College London
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2013

The current mainstay of treatment of thrombotic APS is long-term anticoagulation with oral vitamin K antagonists (VKA) such as warfarin. However, the use of warfarin is problematic, particularly in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) include dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®), a direct thrombin inhibitor, and rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), Apixaban (Eliquis) and Edoxaban (Lixiana®), which are direct anti-Xa inhibitors. Unlike warfarin, these agents do not interact with dietary constituents and alcohol, have few reported drug interactions, and monitoring of their anticoagulant intensity is not routinely required due to their predictable anticoagulant effects. In this chapter, we discuss clinical and laboratory aspects of NOAC. These agents have been approved for several therapeutic indications based on phase III prospective randomised controlled clinical trials using warfarin at a target INR of 2.5 (i.e. range 2.0-3.0) as the comparator. However these trials may not be directly applicable to patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) where prospective clinical studies of NOAC are the way forward. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Haemostasis Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis | Year: 2012

Coagulation factor I (fibrinogen) plays an essential role in the hemostatic system by bridging activated platelets and being the key substrate for thrombin in establishing a consolidating fibrin network. Fibrinogen is synthesized in the liver and the plasma concentration is 1 to 5-4.0 g/L. During recent 10 years, fibrinogen has been recognized to play an important role in controlling hemorrhage. Dilutional coagulopathy induced by colloid plasma expanders is characterized by fibrinogen deficiency and dysfunctional fibrin polymerization. Trauma and use of extracorporeal circulation is also known to reduce levels of fibrinogen. A series of laboratory experiments and experimental animal studies have suggested fibrinogen as a potent hemostatic agent. These data are supported by retrospective surveys as well as a series of prospective proof of principal clinical trials. This article provides a description of the biochemistry and mechanisms of fibrinogen as well as the etiology for developing fibrinogen deficiency. Furthermore, it summarizes laboratory and experimental data on the role of fibrinogen in dilutional coagulopathy and addresses laboratory monitoring issues. Finally, it lists retrospective and prospective studies, which have been designed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of hemostatic intervention with fibrinogen concentrate.


PubMed | Royal Veterinary College and Haemostasis Research Unit
Type: | Journal: Biomarker insights | Year: 2016

Cows milk is economically important to the agricultural industry with the nutritive value of milk being routinely measured. This does not give full insight into normal mammary tissue turnover during the course of lactation, which could be important for both an understanding of milk production and animal welfare. We have previously demonstrated that submicron particles, including extracellular vesicles (EVs), can be measured in unprocessed cows milk by flow cytometry and that they correlate with stage of lactation. A number of different techniques are available to measure EVs and other milk-derived particles. The purpose of this study was to compare two different methodologies and the value of fluorescent staining for the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS), which is exposed on the surface of EVs (but not other milk-derived particles). We used two different flow cytometers and nanotracker analysis to detect milk-derived particles in whole and skimmed milk samples. Our findings indicate significant correlation, after staining for PS, suggesting potential for larger multicenter studies in the future.


PubMed | Haemostasis Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) | Year: 2012

In 2001, the US Food and Nutrition Board concluded that there were insufficient data with which to establish a RDA for vitamin K, in large part because of a lack of robust endpoints that reflected adequacy of intake. Knowledge of the relative bioavailability of multiple vitamin K forms was also poor. Since then, stable isotope methodologies have been applied to the assessment of the bioavailability of the major dietary form of vitamin K in its free state and when incorporated into a plant matrix. There is a need for stable isotope studies with enhanced sensitivity to expand knowledge of the bioavailability, absorption, disposition, and metabolism of different molecular forms of vitamin K. Another area for future research stems from evidence that common polymorphisms or haplotypes in certain key genes implicated in vitamin K metabolism might affect nutritional requirements. Thus far, much of this evidence is indirect via effects on warfarin dose requirements. In terms of clinical endpoints, vitamin K deficiency in early infancy continues to be a leading cause of intracranial bleeding even in developed countries and the reasons for its higher prevalence in certain Asian countries has not been solved. There is universal consensus for the need for vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns, but the effectiveness of any vitamin K prophylactic regimen needs to be based on sound nutritional principles. In contrast, there is still a lack of suitable biomarkers or clinical endpoints that can be used to determine vitamin K requirements among adults.

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