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Larsen C.C.,Rigshospitalet | Sorensen B.,Haemostasis Research Unit | Nielsen J.D.,Copenhagen University | Astrup J.,Glostrup University Hospital
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: Early rebleeding is an important cause of death and disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Recent studies have shown that 50-90% of the rebleedings occurred within the first 6 hours after the primary bleeding. The mechanism leading to rebleeding remains to be established. In the present prospective case-control study we hypothesize that patients with SAH develop a coagulopathy characterized by reduced clot stability during the early period after the initial bleeding. Methods: Patients with aneurysmal SAH was studied with a dynamic clot lysis assay and markers of fibrinolysis and clot stabilizers in blood samples taken within and after 6 hours after onset of bleeding. Results were compared with blood samples from age and gender matched healthy controls. Results: 36 patients were enrolled, 26 patients had blood samples collected within 6 hours after the initial bleeding whereas 10 patients had blood samples taken later than 6 hours after the initial bleeding. Patients demonstrated significantly reduced clot stability during the first 6 hours after initial bleeding. Fibrinolytic activity was increased during the first 6 hours along with the inhibitors of fibrinolysis whereas the modulators of fibrinolysis were reduced or inactivated. Conclusion: During the first 6 hours after SAH patients exhibit reduced clot-stability. Probably a consequence of activated fibrinolysis in combination with reduced or inactivated factor XIII and thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Rahe-Meyer N.,Clinic for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine | Rahe-Meyer N.,Hannover Medical School | Solomon C.,Salzburger Landeskliniken SALK | Solomon C.,Hannover Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2013

Background: Fibrinogen is suggested to play an important role in managing major bleeding. However, clinical evidence regarding the effect of fibrinogen concentrate (derived from human plasma) on transfusion is limited. The authors assessed whether fibrinogen concentrate can reduce blood transfusion when given as intraoperative, targeted, first-line hemostatic therapy in bleeding patients undergoing aortic replacement surgery. METHODS: In this single-center, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, patients aged 18 yr or older undergoing elective thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic replacement surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass were randomized to fibrinogen concentrate or placebo, administered intraoperatively. Study medication was given if patients had clinically relevant coagulopathic bleeding immediately after removal from cardiopulmonary bypass and completion of surgical hemostasis. Dosing was individualized using the fibrin-based thromboelastometry test. If bleeding continued, a standardized transfusion protocol was followed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group and 32 patients in the placebo group were eligible for the efficacy analysis. During the first 24 h after the administration of study medication, patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group received fewer allogeneic blood components than did patients in the placebo group (median, 2 vs. 13 U; P < 0.001; primary endpoint). Total avoidance of transfusion was achieved in 13 (45%) of 29 patients in the fibrinogen concentrate group, whereas 32 (100%) of 32 patients in the placebo group received transfusion (P < 0.001). There was no observed safety concern with using fibrinogen concentrate during aortic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Hemostatic therapy with fibrinogen concentrate in patients undergoing aortic surgery significantly reduced the transfusion of allogeneic blood products. Larger multicenter studies are necessary to confirm the role of fibrinogen concentrate in the management of perioperative bleeding in patients with life-threatening coagulopathy. Copyright © 2012, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Arachchillage D.J.,Haemostasis Research Unit | Cohen H.,University College London
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2013

The current mainstay of treatment of thrombotic APS is long-term anticoagulation with oral vitamin K antagonists (VKA) such as warfarin. However, the use of warfarin is problematic, particularly in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) include dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®), a direct thrombin inhibitor, and rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), Apixaban (Eliquis) and Edoxaban (Lixiana®), which are direct anti-Xa inhibitors. Unlike warfarin, these agents do not interact with dietary constituents and alcohol, have few reported drug interactions, and monitoring of their anticoagulant intensity is not routinely required due to their predictable anticoagulant effects. In this chapter, we discuss clinical and laboratory aspects of NOAC. These agents have been approved for several therapeutic indications based on phase III prospective randomised controlled clinical trials using warfarin at a target INR of 2.5 (i.e. range 2.0-3.0) as the comparator. However these trials may not be directly applicable to patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) where prospective clinical studies of NOAC are the way forward. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Sorensen B.,Haemostasis Research Unit | Dargaud Y.,Unite dHemostase Clinique | Kenet G.,National Hemophilia Center | Lusher J.,Childrens Hospital of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
Haemophilia | Year: 2012

On-demand therapy with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can provide effective haemostasis for spontaneous bleeds in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. However, treatment approaches vary amongst physicians, positively or negatively affecting outcomes. A panel of physicians proposed recommendations for securing and maintaining predictable efficacy with rFVIIa, comparing these with 'real-life' patient management, using a questionnaire circulated to other expert physicians from haemophilia care centres in Europe and the United States. For rFVIIa treatment of spontaneous bleeds in inhibitor patients, early intervention with the highest appropriate dose is recommended. Home-based therapy can facilitate early intervention. If additional rFVIIa therapy is required after the initial dose, rFVIIa 90μgkg -1 may be administered at 2-3h intervals. Treatment should be tailored to bleed site/severity, recognizing the advantages of appropriate adjunct therapy. Questionnaire results suggested that many respondents adopted strategies in line with the recommendations. Most (36/46) recommended initial therapy within 1h of bleed onset. rFVIIa 270μgkg -1 was the most frequently prescribed/recommended initial dose for paediatric (aged ≤15years; 22/44 respondents) and adult (aged >15years; 23/44 respondents) patients. However, there may be opportunity for improved bleed management on occasion, with regard, for instance, to dosing and dose interval. To secure and maintain predictable efficacy with rFVIIa, judicious dose selection and treatment timing are important, together with adjunct therapy where necessary. As inhibitor patients present with different bleeding scenarios, a tailored treatment approach should be adopted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Larsen O.H.,Aarhus University Hospital | Fenger-Eriksen C.,Aarhus University Hospital | Christiansen K.,Aarhus University Hospital | Ingerslev J.,Aarhus University Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2011

Background: Thromboelastography/metry (TEG®; Haemoscope, Niles, IL/ROTEM®; Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany) is increasingly used to guide transfusion therapy. This study investigated the diagnostic performance and therapeutic consequence of using kaolin-activated whole blood compared with a panel of specific TEM®-reagents to distinguish: dilutional coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinolysis, and heparinization. Methods: Blood was drawn from 11 healthy volunteers. Dilutional coagulopathy was generated by 50% dilution with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 whereas thrombocytopenia (mean platelet count 20 ×10/l) was induced using a validated model. Hyperfibrinolysis and heparin contamination were generated by tissue plasminogen activator 2 nM and unfractionated heparin 0.1U/ml, respectively. Coagulation tests were run on ROTEM® delta. Results: Kaolin-activated whole blood showed no differences between dilutional coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia (mean clotting time 450 s vs. 516 s, α-angle 47.1° vs. 41.5°, maximum clot firmness 35.0 mm vs. 34.2 mm, all P values ≥0.14). Hyperfibrinolysis specifically disclosed an increased maximum lysis (median: 100%, all P values less than 0.001), and heparin induced a distinctly prolonged clotting time (2283 s, all P values less than 0.02). The coagulopathies were readily distinguishable using a panel of TEM-reagents. In particular, dilutional coagulopathy was separated from thrombocytopenia using FIBTEM (maximum clot firmness 1.9 mm vs. 11.2 mm, P < 0.001). The run time of analysis to achieve diagnostic data was shorter applying a panel of TEM-reagents. A transfusion algorithm based on kaolin suggested platelets in case of dilutional coagulopathy, whereas an algorithm applying TEM-reagents suggested fibrinogen. Conclusion: Monoanalysis with kaolin was unable to distinguish coagulopathies caused by dilution from that of thrombocytopenia. Algorithms based on the use of kaolin may lead to unnecessary transfusion with platelets, whereas the application of TEM-reagents may result in goal-directed fibrinogen substitution. Copyright © 2011, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Source

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