Dodiuk-Gad R.P.,University of Toronto |
Dodiuk-Gad R.P.,Haemek Medical Center |
Laws P.M.,University of Toronto |
Shear N.H.,University of Toronto
Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2014
Epidemiological studies of severe drug hypersensitivities are important to understanding the morbidity and mortality of this heterogeneous group of disorders. These insights also allow greater identification of at-risk patient groups. However, epidemiological studies of drug hypersensitivity reactions are challenging due to the variable diagnostic criteria applied and incomplete data sets studied. We review the epidemiology of severe drug hypersensitivity reactions with a particular focus on severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). SCAR diseases include: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug rash eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, serum-sickness-like reaction and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. © 2014 Frontline Medical Communications.
Vardizer Y.,Haemek Medical Center
Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER | Year: 2010
This review follows the process of evaluation of thyroid related orbitopathy (TRO) patients from diagnosis to treatment decision. We will attempt to define the criteria for referring TRO patients to the ophthalmologist and establish a common basis for orbital examination and TRO patient assessment. This should help classify TRO patients and achieve the best treatment regime. Thyroid related orbitopathy (TRO) is an endocrine disorder with orbital manifestations. Though most patients are first seen by an endocrinologist because of thyroid function disturbance symptoms, approximately 10% will first be seen by an ophthalmologist due to orbitopathy symptoms and signs (1). In the majority of cases the time interval between the appearance of dysthyroid symptomatology and orbital signs is less than a year. Among patients with thyroid endocrine dysfunction, 25% to 50% will gradually develop TRO. Most will have mild orbital manifestations, 28% will develop moderate to severe signs and only 3-5% will have the severe form (2). In this review we will follow the TRO patient through his first steps in the orbital clinic and emphasize the importance of clinical assessment as a crucial phase in determining the appropriate therapeutic approach.
Lin G.,Trauma Unit |
Becker A.,Haemek Medical Center |
Lynn M.,University of Miami
Injury | Year: 2012
Objective: Efficient triage may have a major influence on mortality and morbidity as well as financial consequences. A continuous effort to improve this decision making process and update the trauma alert criteria is being made. However, criteria for determining the evacuation priority are not well developed. We performed a prospective study to evaluate which pre-hospital parameters identify major trauma victims with an emphasis on a need for emergent surgical procedures. Methods: A prospective cohort included 601 patients admitted to a level one trauma centre over a three months period. The pre-hospital trauma alert criteria were recorded and set as independent variables. All major surgical procedures were graded in real time as: emergent, urgent, or not urgent. The ISS was calculated after completion of all the diagnostic workup. Patients were classified as major trauma victims if their calculated ISS was 16 or greater, and those needed an urgent intervention or intensive care. The relative risks (RR) for major trauma and a need for an emergent operation were calculated. Results: 243 (40%) patients were classified as having a major trauma. 39 (6.5%) patients required an emergent operative intervention: 24 for an active bleeding, 5 for a pericardial tamponade and 10 for an imminent cerebral herniation. Paramedic judgement and a penetrating injury to the trunk were the most common causes for over triage. However, a penetrating injury to the trunk had been the only clue that the victim needed an emergent operation in five cases. 128 patients had a pre-hospital Glasgow coma score (GCS) ≤12. Altered mental status was the most common and a significant predictor of both major trauma (RR of 3.00 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.98-4.53) and a need for an emergent operation (RR, 95% CI: 4.43, 2.28-8.58). Also, a systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg was highly associated with an emergent operation (RR, 95% CI: 11.69, 5.85-23.36). Conclusion: For determining the evacuation priority, we suggest a triage system based on three major criteria: mental status, hypotension and a penetrating injury to the trunk. Overall, the set of trauma alert criteria system can be further simplified and enable better utilisation of resources. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saliba W.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology |
Saliba W.,Haemek Medical Center |
Barnett O.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology |
Rennert H.S.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology |
Rennert G.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012
Context and Objectives: Vitamin D plays a key role in maintaining bone health, but evidence for its nonskeletal effects is inconsistent. This study aims to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and all-cause mortality in a large general population cohort. Design, Participants, and Setting: Using the computerized database of the largest health care provider in Israel, we identified a cohort of subjects 20 years old or older with serum 25(OH)D levels measured between January 2008 and December 2009. Vital status was ascertained through August 2011. Results: Median follow-up was 28.5 months (interquartile range 23.8-33.5 months); 7,247 of 182,152 participants (4.0%) died. Subjects who died had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D levels (mean 44.8 ± 24.2 nmol/liter) than those alive at the end of follow-up (51.0 ± 23.2 nmol/liter), P <0.001. After adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, and seasonality, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 2.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-2.15] for the lowest serum 25(OH)D quartile (<33.8 nmol/liter) compared with the highest. After further adjustment for comorbidity, use of vitamin D supplements and statins, smoking, socioeconomic status, and body mass index, the HR was 1.81 (95% CI 1.69-1.95). This remained, even after adjustment for serum low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, calcium level (corrected for serum albumin levels), and glomerular filtration rate, 1.85 (95% CI 1.70-2.01). The fully adjusted HR associated with being in the second 25(OH)D quartile (33.8-49.4 nmol/liter) was 1.25 (95% CI 1.16-1.34). Conclusions: All-cause mortality is independently and inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D levels at levels less than 50 nmol/liter. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.
Mizrahi H.,Haemek Medical Center |
Parker M.C.,Darent Valley Hospital
Archives of Surgery | Year: 2012
Objective: To establish a literature-based surgical approach to asymptomatic inguinal hernia (IH). Data Sources: PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, Embase, national guidelines (including the National Library of Guidelines Specialist Library), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, and the National Research Register were searched for prospective randomized trials comparing surgical treatment of patients with asymptomatic IH with conservative treatment. Study Selection: The literature search retrieved 216 article headlines, and these articles were analyzed. Of those studies, a total of 41 articles were found to be relevant and 2 large well-conducted randomized controlled studies that published their results in several articles were reviewed. Data Extraction: The pain and discomfort, general health status, complications, and life-threatening events of patients with asymptomatic IH managed by surgery or watchful waiting were determined. Data Synthesis: No significant difference in pain scores and general health status were found when comparing the patients who were followed up with the patients who had surgery.Asignificant crossover ratio ranging between 23% and 72% from watchful waiting to surgery was found. In patients with watchful waiting, the rates of IH strangulation were 0.27% after 2 years of follow-up and 0.55% after 4 years of follow-up. In patients who underwent elective surgery, the range of operative complications was 0% to 22.3% and the recurrence rate was 2.1%. Conclusion: Both treatment options for asymptomatic IH are safe, but most patients will develop symptoms (mainly pain) over time and will require operation. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.