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Crouch S.,University of York | Simpson J.,University of York | Ansell P.,University of York | Kane E.,University of York | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: Increased understanding of the relationship between lymphomas and co-morbidities is likely to provide valuable insights into the natural history of these disorders. Methods: 761 cases with lymphoma (310 diffuse large B-cell [DLBCL]; 226 follicular [FL]; and 225 Hodgkin [HL]) and 761 unaffected age and sex matched controls were recruited and their histories of infection and non-infection diagnoses in primary care records were compared using negative binomial regression. Results: No differences were observed between the infectious illness patterns of DLBCL and FL cases and their matched controls over the 15 years preceding lymphoma diagnosis. A marked excess of infectious illness episodes was recorded for HL cases compared to their controls; evident at least a decade prior to HL diagnosis. For non-infectious consultations an excess of case over control visits emerged 4-6 years before DLBCL and FL diagnosis; no specific co-morbidity associations were found. No case-control differences for non-infectious conditions were apparent for HL. Conclusion: There are substantial variations in patterns of illness prior to diagnosis of the three lymphoma subtypes examined. The excess of infectious diagnoses prior to HL may point to underlying immune abnormality, but there was no suggestion of this for DLBCL and FL where a generalized excess of non-infectious conditions was evident. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yusof M.Y.M.,University of Leeds | Vital E.M.,University of Leeds | Das S.,University of Leeds | Dass S.,University of Leeds | And 4 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2015

Objective To assess clinical and B cell biomarkers to predict relapse after rituximab in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) using retreatment on clinical relapse strategy. Methods 35 patients with AAV received treatment with 2×1000 mg rituximab, repeated on clinical relapse (up to 5 cycles). Disease activity was assessed by Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) and peripheral B cell subsets using highly sensitive flow cytometry (HSFC) as previously described; both performed at baseline and every 3 months. Results Response rates were high: >83%, with median time-to-relapse of 82 weeks for cycle 1 (C1) and >54 weeks for all cycles. Prior to rituximab, AAV was characterised by naïve B-lymphopenia compared to healthy controls. This dysregulation was more marked in patients with raised C-reactive protein (CRP) (p<0.05). In C1, no clinical feature predicted relapse. However, repopulation of naïve B cell at 6 months was associated with a reduced risk of relapse (HR: 0.326, 95% 0.114 to 0.930, p=0.036). Relapse rates at 12 and 18 months were 0% and 14% with naïve repopulation at 6 months, and 31% and 54% without naïve repopulation. Conclusions Responses to B cell depletion therapy are long-lasting and relapse post-treatment may be predicted by absence of naïve B cell repopulation at 6 months. Naïve B-lymphopenia may be a biomarker of disease activity in AAV. © 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism. Source


Das S.,Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine | Das S.,NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit | Vital E.M.,Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine | Vital E.M.,NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit | And 13 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of two different targeted approaches-abatacept or tocilizumab-after rituximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis, and to explain observed difference in efficacy using blood and synovial studies of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and B cells in patients receiving rituximab therapy. Methods: Consecutive series of patients who had discontinued rituximab therapy owing to inefficacy or toxicity were treated with abatacept (n=16) or tocilizumab (n=35). Clinical response and reasons for discontinuation were evaluated. Serial blood and synovial samples were obtained from a group of 57 and 25 rituximab-treated patients, respectively, and were analysed for B cells and IL-6 using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In the abatacept group, mean (SEM) Disease Activity Score in 28 joints calculated using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) reduced from 5.69 (0.42) at baseline to 4.94 (0.44) at 6 months ( p=0.12). In the tocilizumab group: mean (SEM) DAS28- ESR reduced from 5.75 (0.21) at baseline to 3.28 (0.26) at 6 months (p<0.001). This was paralleled by a significant swollen joint count reduction in the tocilizumab (5.47 (0.70) to 2.70 (0.61), p=0.033), but not abatacept (6.23 (1.3) to 4.15 (1.2), p=0.26), group. In the synovium, despite complete depletion of B cells in 19/22 patients, IL-6 mRNA expression was not significantly reduced after rituximab. Blood B cell numbers remained low 12 months after rituximab. Serum IL-6 was raised at baseline and significantly higher in rituximab clinical non-responders (p=0.035) than responders. A significant reduction in serum IL-6 was seen in rituximab clinical responders (p=0.005) but not in non-responders (p=0.237). Conclusion: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis for whom rituximab therapy failed despite adequate B cell depletion, IL-6-directed therapy might be a more logical and effective treatment choice than T cell costimulation blockade. Further controlled studies investigating other possible mechanisms are needed to validate these initial findings. Source


Md Yusof M.Y.,University of Leeds | Md Yusof M.Y.,NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit | Vital E.M.,University of Leeds | Vital E.M.,NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit | And 9 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2015

Objective: To assess clinical and B cell biomarkers to predict relapse after rituximab in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) using retreatment on clinical relapse strategy. Methods: 35 patients with AAV received treatment with 2×1000 mg rituximab, repeated on clinical relapse (up to 5 cycles). Disease activity was assessed by Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) and peripheral B cell subsets using highly sensitive flow cytometry (HSFC) as previously described; both performed at baseline and every 3 months. Results: Response rates were high: >83%, with median time-to-relapse of 82 weeks for cycle 1 (C1) and >54 weeks for all cycles. Prior to rituximab, AAV was characterised by naïve B-lymphopenia compared to healthy controls. This dysregulation was more marked in patients with raised C-reactive protein (CRP) ( p<0.05). In C1, no clinical feature predicted relapse. However, repopulation of naïve B cell at 6 months was associated with a reduced risk of relapse (HR: 0.326, 95% 0.114 to 0.930, p=0.036). Relapse rates at 12 and 18 months were 0% and 14% with naïve repopulation at 6 months, and 31% and 54% without naïve repopulation. Conclusions: Responses to B cell depletion therapy are long-lasting and relapse post-treatment may be predicted by absence of naïve B cell repopulation at 6 months. Naïve B-lymphopenia may be a biomarker of disease activity in AAV. Source


Vital E.M.,NIHR Leeds Biomedical Research Unit | Vital E.M.,University of Leeds | Dass S.,NIHR Leeds Biomedical Research Unit | Dass S.,University of Leeds | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2015

Objectives: Since clinical non-response to 2×1000 mg rituximab has previously been found to be associated with incomplete B cell depletion, we determined, in a randomised controlled proof of concept study, whether patients with initial incomplete B cell depletion would benefit from an additional infusion of rituximab at week 4. Methods: Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate received a first infusion of rituximab 1000 mg and were tested for persistent B cells using highly sensitive flow cytometry on day 15. All received a second infusion of 1 g (according to license), but patients with persistent B cells were subsequently randomised doubleblind to receive, 2 weeks later, either a third infusion of 1000 mg rituximab or placebo. Clinical response was determined by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Results: Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. Treatment with 3×1000 mg rituximab resulted in significantly greater depletion (lower B cell and plasmablast numbers between 8 and 28 weeks) paralleled by significantly better EULAR and ACR20 response rates at 40 weeks (p=0.035 and p=0.027, respectively) and 52 weeks (p=0.021 and p=0.043, respectively) compared with 2×1000 mg. Immunoglobulin titres remained stable in both arms, and adverse event rates were balanced. Conclusions: In rituximab-treated patients with incomplete B cell depletion (predictive of poor response), an extra 1000 mg infusion of rituximab at 4 weeks produced both better depletion and clinical responses than placebo with no worsening of safety. Degree of depletion is an important, but modifiable, determinant of response. Source

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