Lejoyeux M.,University Paris Diderot |
Weinstein A.,Hadassah Medical Organization
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse | Year: 2010
Background: Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings, and may include symptoms equivalent to craving and withdrawal. Objectives: This article describes the addictive characteristics of compulsive buying, the psychiatric comorbidity, and the possibilities of treatment. Methods: Using PubMed and MedLine search engines, we performed a review of published literature over the period 19902010 using the keyword "compulsive buying". Results: A key feature distinguishing compulsive buyers from normal consumers, collectors, and hoarders is that the former focuses on the buying process itself, rather than the items bought. In this instance, the purchased items are usually never used, but tend to be hidden or thrown away. A recent screening study found that up to 5 of adult Americans appear to be afflicted with this compulsion. Compulsive buying results in adverse consequences, including financial and legal problems, psychological distress (depression, guilt), and interpersonal conflict. The most commonly associated comorbidities are depression and eating disorders. Nothing is known about the neurobiology and genetics of compulsive buying and relatively little about its treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy has some efficacy, but no medication has been effective in controlled trials. Conclusions: Compulsive buying can be described as a behavioral dependence. A great deal of future research is needed to improve our understanding of compulsive buying. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source
Weinstein A.,Hadassah Medical Organization |
Lejoyeux M.,Hospital Bichat Claude Bernard
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse | Year: 2010
Background: Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that lead to impairment or distress. Currently, there is no recognition of internet addiction within the spectrum of addictive disorders and, therefore, no corresponding diagnosis. It has, however, been proposed for inclusion in the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM). Objective: To review the literature on Internet addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Methods: Review of published literature between 20002009 in Medline and PubMed using the term "internet addiction. Results: Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rate between 1.5 and 8.2, although the diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires used for diagnosis vary between countries. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients report high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several factors are predictive of problematic Internet use, including personality traits, parenting and familial factors, alcohol use, and social anxiety. Conclusions and Scientific Significance: Although Internet-addicted individuals have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for Internet addiction. Due to the lack of methodologically adequate research, it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of Internet addiction. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRG | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-RG | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2011
Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is one of the most common valvular heart disorders. Twenty percent of MVP patients will develop severe complications, including congestive heart failure, endocarditis, atrial arrhythmias, embolic events and even sudden death. MVP is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation requiring surgical repair, however, very little is known about its etiology. MVP has a strong genetic background with significant heterogeneity. Previous genetic studies have shown that non-syndromic MVP can be caused by mutations in filamin A, and the applicants group has identified two additional genetic loci, MMVP2 and MMVP3, on chromosomes 11 and 13. In this study we propose to identify the gene for MMVP2 using next-generation sequencing analysis, and to analyze additional families to further define the molecular pathways that lead to the development of MVP. Aims: The aims of this proposal are to 1) identify the gene for MMVP2 using next-generation sequencing and 2) identify MVP-causing mutations in families segregating the disease by whole-genome family-based linkage analysis, positional cloning and parallel sequencing. Methods: A DNA library representing MMVP2 locus of 4 affected individuals was already prepared and will be sequenced. After sequencing we will validate potential mutation by replicating in nearly 200 familial and sporadic MVP cases. Newly recruited families segregating MVP will be queued for a whole-genome linkage analysis to identify MVP susceptibility loci. DNA of the targeted regions in affected individuals will be pooled and sequenced using next-generation parallel sequencing in search for sequence variation. The pathogenicity of sequence variations will be determined by verifying their segregation with disease in the pedigree, by assessing their effect on protein structure and expression using bioinformatic tools, and by comparing their frequency in cohorts of patients and controls. Expected results and probable impl
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.3.1-2 | Award Amount: 7.77M | Year: 2013
Though of tremendous benefit, the overuse of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and may cause adverse events that impact on patient healthcare. Current diagnostic tools for facilitating the appropriate use of antibiotics in patients are inadequate. We will establish a broad-based strategy (not limited to a particular antibiotic group) that can be implemented on a broad scale to increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy, reduce adverse events, and help limit the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in children and adults. At the heart of the TAILORED-Treatment project is a prospective clinical study in which we will recruit 1200 patients (>2000 patient samples) presenting with respiratory tract infections and/or sepsis. Patient cohorts will include equal representation of genders, children and adults. State-of-the-art molecular technologies will be applied to characterize host-pathogen interactions at the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and clinical level, resulting in a large-scale and unique multi-dimensional dataset. The consortium partners will develop new computational tools to interrogate this data, in order to provide new insights into personalized host-pathogen interactions, including the discovery of novel biomarkers for physicians to use in patient diagnosis and disease monitoring. Concurrently, using this data, we will construct a predictive personalized treatment algorithm that will lead to informed and personalized antimicrobial treatment regimens (indication, dosage, and duration) that are tailored to the needs (type of infection, presence of novel biomarkers etc) of children and adults presenting with respiratory infections and sepsis. This unique multi-dimensional dataset and personalized predictive treatment algorithm will be built into an easily navigable web-based, free-to-use, decision support system for use by physicians to explore and assist in patient-tailored antimicrobial treatment decisions.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2015
The human visual brain can learn and adapt to change, which solves many of the problems posed by an ever-changing visual environment. However, to maintain a consistent overall representation of the visual world, the brain also has to retain previously acquired neuronal mechanisms. The key is to strike a balance between plasticity and stability. Increasing our knowledge about the stability and plasticity of the visual brain has tremendous potential for innovation in health care and high-tech industry: 1) rehabilitation, treatments and detection of disease can be developed and refined based on knowing how the brain changes as a result of visual loss or neural dysfunction; 2) it can inspire the development and implementation of artificial intelligence, such as adaptive automated vision systems. However, our present knowledge of the adaptive capacity of the human brain is incomplete and largely qualitative in nature. This limits translation into significant applications. To overcome this, NextGenVis Research Network for training the Next Generation of European Visual Neuroscientists will aim its research and training efforts on teaching young researchers in how to a) acquire new, quantitative knowledge on the adaptive properties of the visual brain in health and disease with a strong focus on the neurocomputational basis and b) apply this new knowledge to boost innovation in health care and technology. Our pan-European team of academic, health care and private sector partners is ideally suited to accomplish this as it bundles and focuses unique European expertise and resources in brain imaging, psychology, neurology, ophthalmology and computer science. Importantly, the positive impact of this network will extend beyond the current focus on vision and will last long after the funding period. It will continue to link together a team of highly skilled researchers who will inspire each other to excel in visual neuroscience and its applications.