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Lee S.J.,Johns Hopkins University | Levitsky K.,Onyx Pharmaceuticals | Parlati F.,Calithera Biosciences | Bennett M.K.,Calithera Biosciences | And 13 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2016

While proteasome inhibition is a validated therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma (MM), inhibition of individual constitutive proteasome (c20S) and immunoproteasome (i20S) subunits has not been fully explored owing to a lack of effective tools. We utilized the novel proteasome constitutive/immunoproteasome subunit enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ProCISE) assay to quantify proteasome subunit occupancy in samples from five phase I/II and II trials before and after treatment with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. Following the first carfilzomib dose (15-56 mg/m2), dose-dependent inhibition of c20S and i20S chymotrypsin-like active sites was observed [whole blood: ≥67%; peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): ≥75%]. A similar inhibition profile was observed in bone marrow-derived CD138+ tumour cells. Carfilzomib-induced proteasome inhibition was durable, with minimal recovery in PBMCs after 24 h but near-complete recovery between cycles. Importantly, the ProCISE assay can be used to quantify occupancy of individual c20S and i20S subunits. We observed a relationship between MM patient response (n = 29), carfilzomib dose and occupancy of multiple i20S subunits, where greater occupancy was associated with an increased likelihood of achieving a clinical response at higher doses. ProCISE represents a new tool for measuring proteasome inhibitor activity in clinical trials and relating drug action to patient outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | Hackensack University Medical Center Hackensack
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: In vivo (Athens, Greece) | Year: 2013

The effects of 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM) together with the Gardasil vaccine on cervical histology were evaluated using the K14-HPV16-transgenic mouse model. The possibility that DIM could enhance the efficacy of this preventive vaccine in this model was explored.Transgenic mice were given 1000 mg/kg of DIM in the diet for 28 weeks. The mice were injected with Gardasil Quadrivalent HPV vaccine. Some mice were sacrificed at 28 weeks. Other groups were removed from the DIM diet after 28 weeks to a diet with no DIM for either 4 or 8 weeks.Cervical histology indicated that a high percentage of transgenic mice fed DIM and vaccinated with Gardasil manifested normal cervical epitheliums at 4 weeks after DIM discontinuation.Vaccination pre-supplemented with DIM may provide with a window of protection of at least four weeks in this transgenic model. However, extrapolation to the effect in humans is beyond the limited scope of the histological data presented here.

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