Takizawa T.,Hachinohe University
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2012
Mental diseases such as schizophrenia and depression put patients at risk for suicide. It is extremely important to understand that one way of preventing suicide is to determine the actual mental state of the individual. The purpose of this study was to analyze the true mental state of suicide victims reported in the vital statistics. This study investigated the vital statistics of 30,299 suicide victims in Japan in 2008. The use of these basic statistics for non-statistical purposes was approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The method involved reviewing the Vital Statistics Survey Death Form at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare as well as analyzing their Online Reporting of Vital Statistics. Furthermore, this study was able to validate 29,799 of the 30,299 suicides (98.3%) that occurred in 2008. Mental diseases were validated not only from the "Cause of death" section as marked on the death certificate, but also by information found in sections for "Additional items for death by external cause" and "Other special remarks." RESULTS; From the Vital Statistics Survey Death Form and Online Reporting of Vital Statistics, 2964 individuals with either a mental disease or mental disorder were identified. Of the 2964 identified individuals, 55 had dementia (of which 13 were dementia in Alzheimer's disease), 116 had alcohol dependence/psychotic disorder, 550 had schizophrenia, 101 had bipolar affective disorder, 1,913 has had a depressive episode, 13 had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 22 had adjustment disorders, 14 had eating disorders, 49 had nonorganic sleep disorders, 24 had personality disorder, and 6 had pervasive developmental disorders. In addition, 125 individuals had more than one mental disease. The national police statistics from 2008 show that 1,368 suicide victims had schizophrenia and 6,490 had depression. These figures show quite a difference between the results of this study and the police statistics. Further, there have been controversies regarding autopsies of suicide victims. Thus, further investigation into the cause of death is of great importance.
Mitsui T.,Iwate University |
Kanachi M.,Hachinohe University |
Shimaoka K.,Nagoya University
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2010
In Japan, there is a higher incidence of childhood obesity in the Tohoku district than in other areas. It is known that reduced physical activity is associated with increased body weight, but little is known about the physical activity patterns of children in this area. Accordingly, this study was designed to measure the physical activity of 145 children (73 boys and 72 girls) in Hashikami Town, Aomori Prefecture. Physical activity was assessed through a questionnaire as well as through two weeks of pedometer use. Boys spent more time engaging in physical activity than girls did, reporting 9.5 (0.6-22.0) versus 7.0 (1.2-21.5) hours per week [median (range)] (p=0.002). On school days, boys took an average of 13,586±4,386 (mean±SD) steps per day, while girls took 12,248±4,112; on holidays, boys took 9,531±4,557, while girls took 9,419±4,524. There was no significant sex-based difference in the number of steps per day (F=1.197, p=0.276), but both boys and girls significantly reduced the number of steps they took on holidays (F=116.537, p<0.001). In addition, 36 (24.8%) children reduced the number of steps they took by more than 50% on holidays compared to school days. In general, the participants engaged in the internationally recommended amounts of physical activity. Yet their reduced level of physical activity on holidays seems to be a matter for concern, as it is a possible cause of the higher incidence of childhood obesity in this area.
Kanzaki K.,Hiroshima University |
Kuratani M.,Hiroshima University |
Mishima T.,Hachinohe University |
Matsunaga S.,University of Miyazaki |
And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010
The present study investigated the effects of eccentric muscle contractions (ECC) on the content of myofibrillar proteins (my-proteins) and the catalytic activity of myofibrillar ATPase (my-ATPase) in skeletal muscles. Rat extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles were exposed to 200-repeated ECC or isometric contractions (ISC) and used for measures of force output and for biochemical analyses, respectively. Whereas in ISC-treated muscles, full restoration of tetanic force was attained after 2 days of recovery, force developed by ECC-treated muscles remained depressed (P < 0.05) after 6 days. The total my-protein content and the relative content of myosin heavy chain (MHC) in total my-proteins were unaltered during 4 days of recovery after ECC, but fell (P < 0.05) to 55.9 and 63.4% after 6 days of recovery, respectively. my-ATPase activity expressed on a my-protein weight basis was unaltered immediately after ECC. However, it decreased (P < 0.05) to 75.3, 45.3, and 49.3% after 2, 4 and 6 days of recovery, respectively. Total maximal calpain activity measured at 5 mM Ca2+ was significantly augmented (P < 0.05) after 2 days of recovery, reaching a level of threefold higher after 6 days. These alterations were specific for ECC and not observed for ISC. These results suggest that depressions in my-ATPase activity contribute to ECC-induced decreases in force and power which can take a number of days to recover. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Han Y.,Nihon University |
Fukuda N.,Nihon University |
Ueno T.,Nihon University |
Endo M.,Hachinohe University |
And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012
Background Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show exaggerated growth with a synthetic phenotype and angiotensin II (Ang II)-production. To evaluate the contribution of complement 3 (C3) or C3a toward these abnormalities in SHR, we examined effects of a C3a receptor inhibitor on proliferation, phenotype, and Ang II-production in VSMCs from SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Methods Expression of pre-pro-C3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and C3 protein was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses, and C3a receptor mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis in quiescent VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats. We examined the effects of the C3a inhibitor, SB290157, on proliferation and the expression of phenotype-marker and Krueppel-like factor 5 (KLF-5) mRNAs in VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats. We examined effects of C3a receptor inhibitor, SB290157, on Ang II-production in conditioned medium of VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats by a radioimmunoassay. Results Expression of pre-pro-C3 mRNA and C3 protein was significantly higher in SHR VSMCs than WKY VSMCs. SB290157 significantly inhibited proliferation of VSMCs from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats. Relative to WKY VSMCs, SB290157 significantly increased the low expression of SM22α mRNA and decreased the high expression of osteopontin mRNA in SHR VSMCs. SB290157 significantly decreased the high expression of KLF-5 and Ang II-production in VSMCs from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats. Conclusions C3a induces exaggerated growth, a synthetic phenotype and Ang II-production in SHR-derived VSMCs. C3a may be primarily involved in cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.
Hua W.,Shenyang University of Technology |
Wang H.-J.,Shenyang University of Technology |
Hasegawa A.,Hachinohe University
Steel and Composite Structures | Year: 2014
Experimental results of 39 specimens including concrete columns, RC columns, hollow steel tube columns, concrete filled steel tubular (CFT) columns, and reinforced concrete filled steel tubular (RCFT) columns are presented. Based on the experimental results, the load-carrying capacity, confined effect, ductility, and failure mode of test columns are investigated. The effects of the main factors such as width-thickness ratio (the ratio of external diameter and wall thickness for steel tubes), concrete strength, steel tube with or without rib, and arrangement of reinforcing bars on the mechanical characteristics of columns are discussed as well. The differences between CFT and RCFT are compared. As a result, it is thought that strength, rigidity and ductility of RCFT are improved; especially strength and ductility are improved after the peak of load-displacement curve. Copyright © 2014 Techno-Press, Ltd.