Mitsui T.,Iwate University |
Kanachi M.,Hachinohe University |
Shimaoka K.,Nagoya University
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2010
To investigate the level of walking activity among residents of the Tohoku district in northern Japan, where no widespread public transport system has been developed, winter is severe. The participants were 50 town hall employees with an average age of 43.6±10.8 (SD) years. The walking activity of each participant was assessed using a pedometer for one week in summer and one week in winter. The participants' lifestyles, including their commuting methods, were assessed using a questionnaire. Forty-six participants (92%) usually commute to work by private car. The average numbers of steps/day on workdays and holidays were, in summer, 6,560± 2,600 and 7,016±4,679, respectively, and, in winter, 5,236± 2,253 and 4,770±3,039; these numbers were somewhat lower than those recorded in previous reports. We observed a significant reduction in walking during winter (F=19.016, p=0.0001), but no significant differences between workdays and holidays (F=0.001, p=0.966). A significant correlation between BMI and steps/day (r=-0.420, p<0.01) was obtained on workdays in winter. The unexpectedly low level of these participants' physical activity, especially in winter, is probably due to the fact that most of them commute by private car, which is likely a cause of the high incidence of obesity in this district. In addition, a seasonal effect should also be considered when physical activity is assessed, especially in cold climates.
Zhou X.,Nihon University |
Fukuda N.,Nihon University |
Matsuda H.,Nihon University |
Endo M.,Hachinohe University |
And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2013
We have demonstrated that mesenchymal cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats genetically express complement 3 (C3). Mature tubular epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is linked to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis and injury. In this study, we investigated the contribution of C3 in EMT and in the renal renin-angiotensin (RA) systems associated with hypertension. C3a induced EMT in mouse TCMK-1 epithelial cells, which displayed increased expression of renin and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and nuclear localization of liver X receptor α (LXRα). C3 and renin were strongly stained in the degenerated nephrotubulus and colocalized with LXRα and prorenin receptor in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) kidneys from wild-type mice. In C3-deficient mice, hydronephrus and EMT were suppressed, with no expression of renin and C3. After UUO, systolic blood pressure was increased in wild-type but not C3-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, intrarenal angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were markedly higher in UUO kidneys than normal kidneys and decreased with aliskiren. There were no increases in intrarenal ANG II levels after UUO in C3-deficient mice. Thus C3 induces EMT and dedifferentiation of epithelial cells, which produce renin through induction of LXRα. These data indicate for the first time that C3 may be a primary factor to activate the renal RA systems to induce hypertension. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.
PubMed | Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo University of Science, Chukyo University and Hachinohe University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of sports sciences | Year: 2016
We aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of thigh muscles during track cycling at various speeds. Eight male competitive cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and adductor magnus muscles of the bilateral legs was recorded during track cycling on velodromes with a 250-m track. The participants were instructed to maintain three different lap times: 20, 18 and 16s. The average rectified value (ARV) was calculated from the sampled surface electromyography. Significantly higher ARVs were observed in the right compared to left leg for the biceps femoris muscle during both straight and curved sections at 18- and 16-s lap times (P<0.05). In the biceps femoris muscle, significant changes in ARVs during the recovery phase with an increase in speed were seen in the right leg only (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in ARVs between the straight and curved sections for all three muscles (P>0.05). From our findings, it was suggested that during track cycling on a velodrome the laterality of the biceps femoris muscle activity is a key strategy to regulate the speed, and fixed neuromuscular strategies are adopted between straight and curved sections for thigh muscles.
Kanzaki K.,Hiroshima University |
Kuratani M.,Hiroshima University |
Mishima T.,Hachinohe University |
Matsunaga S.,University of Miyazaki |
And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010
The present study investigated the effects of eccentric muscle contractions (ECC) on the content of myofibrillar proteins (my-proteins) and the catalytic activity of myofibrillar ATPase (my-ATPase) in skeletal muscles. Rat extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles were exposed to 200-repeated ECC or isometric contractions (ISC) and used for measures of force output and for biochemical analyses, respectively. Whereas in ISC-treated muscles, full restoration of tetanic force was attained after 2 days of recovery, force developed by ECC-treated muscles remained depressed (P < 0.05) after 6 days. The total my-protein content and the relative content of myosin heavy chain (MHC) in total my-proteins were unaltered during 4 days of recovery after ECC, but fell (P < 0.05) to 55.9 and 63.4% after 6 days of recovery, respectively. my-ATPase activity expressed on a my-protein weight basis was unaltered immediately after ECC. However, it decreased (P < 0.05) to 75.3, 45.3, and 49.3% after 2, 4 and 6 days of recovery, respectively. Total maximal calpain activity measured at 5 mM Ca2+ was significantly augmented (P < 0.05) after 2 days of recovery, reaching a level of threefold higher after 6 days. These alterations were specific for ECC and not observed for ISC. These results suggest that depressions in my-ATPase activity contribute to ECC-induced decreases in force and power which can take a number of days to recover. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Yoshida M.,Hachinohe University |
Suzuki M.,Meisei University |
Satoh M.,Aichi Gakuin University |
Yasutake A.,National Institute for Minamata Disease |
Watanabe C.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2011
We evaluated the effects of prenatal exposure to low-level mercury (Hg 0) or methylmercury (MeHg) as well as combined exposure (Hg 0 + MeHg exposure) on the neurobehavioral function of mice. The Hg0 exposure group was exposed to Hg0 at a mean concentration of 0.030 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day during gestation period. The MeHg exposure was supplied with food containing 5 ppm of MeHg from gestational day 1 to postnatal day 10. The combined exposure group was exposed to both Hg0 vapor and MeHg according to above described procedure. After delivery, when their offspring reached the age of 8 weeks, behavioral analysis was performed. Open field (OPF) tests of the offspring showed an increase and decrease in voluntary activity in male and female mice, respectively, in the MeHg exposure group. In addition, the rate of central entries was significantly higher in this group than in the control group. The results of OPF tests in the Hg0 + MeHg exposure group were similar to those in the MeHg exposure group in both males and females. The results in the Hg0 exposure group did not significantly differ from those in the control group in males or females. Passive avoidance response (PA) tests revealed no significant differences in avoidance latency in the retention trial between the Hg0, MeHg, or Hg0 + MeHg exposure group and the control group in males or females. Morris water maze tests showed a delay in the latency to reach the platform in the MeHg and Hg0 + MeHg exposure groups compared with the control group in males but no significant differences between the Hg0, MeHg, or Hg0 + MeHg exposure group and the control group in females. The results of OPF tests revealed only slight effects of prenatal low-level Hg0 exposure (0.03 mg/m3), close to the no-observable-effect level (NOEL) stated by the WHO (0.025 mg/m3), on the subsequent neurobehavioral function. However, prenatal exposure to 5 ppm of MeHg affected exploratory activity in the OPF test, and, in particular, male mice were highly sensitive to MeHg. The MeHand Hg0 + MeHg exposure groups showed similar neurobehavioral effects. Concerning the effects of pre natal mercury exposure under the conditions of this study, the effects of MeHg exposure may be more marked than those of Hg0 exposure.
Hua W.,Shenyang University of Technology |
Wang H.-J.,Shenyang University of Technology |
Hasegawa A.,Hachinohe University
Steel and Composite Structures | Year: 2014
Experimental results of 39 specimens including concrete columns, RC columns, hollow steel tube columns, concrete filled steel tubular (CFT) columns, and reinforced concrete filled steel tubular (RCFT) columns are presented. Based on the experimental results, the load-carrying capacity, confined effect, ductility, and failure mode of test columns are investigated. The effects of the main factors such as width-thickness ratio (the ratio of external diameter and wall thickness for steel tubes), concrete strength, steel tube with or without rib, and arrangement of reinforcing bars on the mechanical characteristics of columns are discussed as well. The differences between CFT and RCFT are compared. As a result, it is thought that strength, rigidity and ductility of RCFT are improved; especially strength and ductility are improved after the peak of load-displacement curve. Copyright © 2014 Techno-Press, Ltd.
Han Y.,Nihon University |
Fukuda N.,Nihon University |
Ueno T.,Nihon University |
Endo M.,Hachinohe University |
And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012
Background Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show exaggerated growth with a synthetic phenotype and angiotensin II (Ang II)-production. To evaluate the contribution of complement 3 (C3) or C3a toward these abnormalities in SHR, we examined effects of a C3a receptor inhibitor on proliferation, phenotype, and Ang II-production in VSMCs from SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Methods Expression of pre-pro-C3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and C3 protein was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses, and C3a receptor mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis in quiescent VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats. We examined the effects of the C3a inhibitor, SB290157, on proliferation and the expression of phenotype-marker and Krueppel-like factor 5 (KLF-5) mRNAs in VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats. We examined effects of C3a receptor inhibitor, SB290157, on Ang II-production in conditioned medium of VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats by a radioimmunoassay. Results Expression of pre-pro-C3 mRNA and C3 protein was significantly higher in SHR VSMCs than WKY VSMCs. SB290157 significantly inhibited proliferation of VSMCs from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats. Relative to WKY VSMCs, SB290157 significantly increased the low expression of SM22α mRNA and decreased the high expression of osteopontin mRNA in SHR VSMCs. SB290157 significantly decreased the high expression of KLF-5 and Ang II-production in VSMCs from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats. Conclusions C3a induces exaggerated growth, a synthetic phenotype and Ang II-production in SHR-derived VSMCs. C3a may be primarily involved in cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.
Yasutake Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Nishioka T.,Hokkaido University |
Nishioka T.,MicroBiopharm Japan Co. |
Imoto N.,Hokkaido University |
And 3 more authors.
ChemBioChem | Year: 2013
Vitamin D3 hydroxylase (Vdh) from Pseudonocardia autotrophica is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes the two-step hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (VD3) to produce 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)VD3) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1α,25(OH)2VD3). These hydroxylated forms of VD3 are useful as pharmaceuticals for the treatment of conditions associated with VD3 deficiency and VD3 metabolic disorder. Herein, we describe the creation of a highly active T107A mutant of Vdh by engineering the putative ferredoxin-binding site. Crystallographic and kinetic analyses indicate that the T107A mutation results in conformational change from an open to a closed state, thereby increasing the binding affinity with ferredoxin. We also report the efficient biocatalytic synthesis of 25(OH)VD3, a promising intermediate for the synthesis of various hydroxylated VD3 derivatives, by using nisin-treated Rhodococcus erythropolis cells containing VdhT107A. The gene-expression cassette encoding Bacillus megaterium glucose dehydrogenase-IV was inserted into the R. erythropolis chromosome and expressed to avoid exhaustion of NADH in a cytoplasm during bioconversion. As a result, approximately 573 μg mL-1 25(OH)VD3 was successfully produced by a 2 h bioconversion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
PubMed | Niigata University, Nihon University and Hachinohe University
Type: | Journal: Stem cell research & therapy | Year: 2015
Implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has recently been reported to repair tissue injuries through anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. We established dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that show identical characteristics to MSCs.We examined the effects of 10(6) of DFAT cells infused through renal artery or tail vein on monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1-22-3-induced glomerulonephritis (as an immunological type of renal injury) and adriamycin-induced nephropathy (as a non-immunological type of renal injury) in rats. The mAb 1-22-3-injected rats were also implanted with 10(6) of DFAT cells transfected with TSG-6 siRNA through tail vein.Although DFAT cells transfused into blood circulation through the tail vein were trapped mainly in lungs without reaching the kidneys, implantation of DFAT cells reduced proteinuria and improved glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Implantation of DFAT cells through the tail vein significantly decreased expression of kidney injury molecule-1, collagen IV and fibronectin mRNAs, whereas nephrin mRNA expression was increased. Implantation of DFAT cells did not improve adriamycin-induced nephropathy, but significantly decreased the glomerular influx of macrophages, common leukocytes and pan T cells. However, the glomerular influx of helper T cells, was increased. Implantation of DFAT cells decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12 mRNAs and increased expression of TNF-stimulated gene (TSG)-6 mRNA in renal cortex from mAb 1-22-3-injected rats. The basal level of TSG-6 protein was significantly higher in DFAT cells than in fibroblasts. Expression of TSG-6 mRNA in MCs cocultured with DFAT cells was significantly higher than in mesangial cells or DFAT cells alone. Systematic implantation of DFAT cells with TSG-6 siRNA through tail vein did not improve proteinuria, renal dysfunction and renal degeneration in the mAb 1-22-3-injected rats.Systematic implantation of DFAT cells effectively ameliorated mAb 1-22-3-induced glomerulonephritis through immunosuppressive effects accompanied by the suppression of macrophage infiltration and expression of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, and increased production of serum and renal TSG-6 that improved the mAb 1-22-3-induced renal degeneration by the immunosuppressive effects of TSG-6. Thus DFAT cells will be suitable cell source for the treatment of immunological progressive renal diseases.
Takizawa T.,Hachinohe University
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2012
Mental diseases such as schizophrenia and depression put patients at risk for suicide. It is extremely important to understand that one way of preventing suicide is to determine the actual mental state of the individual. The purpose of this study was to analyze the true mental state of suicide victims reported in the vital statistics. This study investigated the vital statistics of 30,299 suicide victims in Japan in 2008. The use of these basic statistics for non-statistical purposes was approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The method involved reviewing the Vital Statistics Survey Death Form at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare as well as analyzing their Online Reporting of Vital Statistics. Furthermore, this study was able to validate 29,799 of the 30,299 suicides (98.3%) that occurred in 2008. Mental diseases were validated not only from the "Cause of death" section as marked on the death certificate, but also by information found in sections for "Additional items for death by external cause" and "Other special remarks." RESULTS; From the Vital Statistics Survey Death Form and Online Reporting of Vital Statistics, 2964 individuals with either a mental disease or mental disorder were identified. Of the 2964 identified individuals, 55 had dementia (of which 13 were dementia in Alzheimer's disease), 116 had alcohol dependence/psychotic disorder, 550 had schizophrenia, 101 had bipolar affective disorder, 1,913 has had a depressive episode, 13 had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 22 had adjustment disorders, 14 had eating disorders, 49 had nonorganic sleep disorders, 24 had personality disorder, and 6 had pervasive developmental disorders. In addition, 125 individuals had more than one mental disease. The national police statistics from 2008 show that 1,368 suicide victims had schizophrenia and 6,490 had depression. These figures show quite a difference between the results of this study and the police statistics. Further, there have been controversies regarding autopsies of suicide victims. Thus, further investigation into the cause of death is of great importance.