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No statistical methods were used to predetermine sample size. The experiments were not randomized and the investigators were not blinded to allocation during experiments and outcome assessment. We tested 2,231 samples collected from the MSM cohort in San Francisco in 1978 (ref. 9) and detected 83 HIV-1-positives by Western Blot (3.7% prevalence). Samples were first screened by GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and reactive samples were further tested by WB Genetic Systems HIV-1 Western Blot (Bio-Rad Laboratories). A total of 33 samples of frozen serum from New York City previously identified as positive for antibody to HIV-16, 7, 8 were assayed; and a total of 20 frozen serum samples from San Francisco9, identified as part of the present study as positive for antibody to HIV-1, were assayed. The New York City samples were from 1978 and 1979 though no complete genomic sequences from 1978 were developed. The San Francisco samples were all from 1978. RNA recovered from samples from both NY and SF was generally undetectable when assaying 5-μl aliquots in a Qubit 2.0 fluorometer using the Qubit RNA HS reagents (detection limit, 250 pgμl−1). Additionally, a sample of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a sample of serum were both assayed; these had been collected from a single individual in 1983 (Patient 0), and the samples were stored at CDC Atlanta. Other than Patient 0, now deceased, the data recorded were unlinked to individual identifiers and the work was approved by the Human Subjects Protection Program at the University of Arizona. Four panels of degenerate primers (Supplementary Table 1 and Extended Data Fig. 1) were designed using a suite of North American subtype B sequences. We aimed to design primers able to amplify both conserved regions and predictably variable sites. Primers within each panel were designed to generate sequence from the 5′ end of gag to the 3′ end of nef and were designed to amplify overlapping fragments. Two panels ‘HIVL’ (n = 25) and ‘HIVLb’ (n = 22) were designed to amplify fragments of approximately 500–650 bases in length. Two other panels ‘HIVM’ (n = 50) and ‘HIVR’ (n = 46) were designed to amplify fragments of approximately 200–320 bases in length. Nucleic acids from 100-μl aliquots of serum (or PBMCs in the case of Patient 0) were isolated using the QIAamp viral RNA mini kit (Qiagen) with 5 mcg added carrier RNA. Serum samples were then treated with DNase I (Invitrogen, Life Technologies) before reverse transcription. PBMC nucleic acids were left untreated. Proviral DNA from Patient 0’s PBMCs was amplified with all four primer panels and from multiple separate isolations. Amplification was achieved using Invitrogen platinum Taq DNA polymerase high fidelity (Life Technologies) and run for 55 cycles at an annealing temperature of 52 °C. Additionally, attempts were made to amplify longer fragments using PCR supermix high fidelity (Life Technologies) and forward and reverse primers matched from the HIVLb primer panel for long fragment length followed by nesting with primers for slightly shorter fragment length. A single fragment of slightly more than 7,000 bases was generated after multiple attempts with multiple primer combinations and cloned using the Invitrogen TOPO XL PCR cloning kit (Life Technologies). Fragments of individual clones were then amplified using HIVLb forward and reverse primers matched to give approximately 1,000-base overlapping fragments and then sequenced. RNA jackhammering of the serum samples proceeded as follows: aliquots of RNA extract were reverse transcribed using the GoScript reverse transcription system (Promega) using a program of 4 cycles of 50 °C for 30 min followed by 55 °C for 30 min and a final incubation at 85 °C for 10 min. Primers used were pools of reverse primers from widely spaced amplicons (Supplementary Table 1, Extended Data Fig. 1), typically nine or ten primers per pool in a single reaction tube, with the wide spacing abrogating the possibility of incorporation of an internal primer into any given amplicon. Reverse transcription products were then briefly amplified in multiplex reactions in the pool-specific tube (denaturation for 3 min at 94 °C followed by 30 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 52 °C for 30 s, 68 °C for 30 s, and a final extension of 68 °C for 5 min) with matching forward primer pools (a ‘preliminary amplification’ step). Sequences were then amplified from individual aliquots taken from the pool-specific tubes, via single primer pairs (denaturation for 3 min at 94 °C followed by 40 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 52 °C for 30 s, 68 °C for 30 s, and a final extension of 68 °C for 5 min). Two separate isolates were amplified from each sample in this manner, with a minimum of one amplification with each primer panel per isolate. Five out of the 33 (15%) of the NY sera assayed yielded complete HIV-1 genomic data as did 3 out of the 20 (15%) SF sera, suggesting that levels of viral RNA preservation were very similar in each collection. In Extended Data Fig. 1 we schematically illustrate the RNA jackhammering approach and its advantages over standard RT–PCR procedures for degraded, low input samples. For a conventional RT–PCR approach with a fairly long amplification product we would perform reverse transcription and obtain one potentially amplifiable cDNA product. We would then aliquot ~10% of the reverse transcription product for amplification in a PCR reaction with forward and reverse primers. Even if the single cDNA product made it into the PCR reaction, the desired amplification product would be too long and a PCR amplicon would therefore not be obtained. For RT–PCR with a shorter amplification product, more appropriately sized given the damaged RNA in the sample, there was still a 90% chance that it would be deemed a negative sample since most aliquots will not contain the rare cDNA product. Using multiple primer sets would increase the chance of a PCR-positive result, but most PCR reactions remained negative because most aliquots lack target cDNA. Even with a 10 primer-pair pool and 10 final PCR reactions, there may be no amplified product. The RNA jackhammering approach targets large panels of appropriately short amplicons, uses discrete pools of non-overlapping primers pairs for reverse transcription, and includes a crucial multiplex pre-amplification step to ensure that each aliquot contained ample template molecules for the final PCR amplification (a separate reaction for each primer pair in the entire panel). Sequencing was performed at the University of Arizona Genetics Core using an ABI 3730XL. The Patient 0 sample contained considerable heterogeneity (mixed bases) both in proviral assembly and in viral RNA amplification. Heterogeneity in the NY and SF samples (all sequences derived from viral RNA) was low. In all cases consensus sequences were used in the phylogenetic analyses. Primer sequences were computationally removed from all sequence data before assembling genomic consensus sequences, which yielded coding-complete genomic data with exception of a few small gaps and the 3′ end of the nef gene (Supplementary Table 2). To validate this approach we obtained seed stock samples from the NIH AIDS Reagent program of subtype B viruses from the US (US657) and Haiti (HT599) and applied a jackhammering approach with independent runs of both the HIVM and HIVR primer panels (Extended Data Fig. 8). For US657 we recovered, in total, from both runs combined, 8,194 nt of high quality data. HIVM and HIVR are independent runs with completely different primer sets, yet where the data overlapped, they were >99.9% similar. Moreover, the few heterogeneities did not line up with heterogeneous primers but fell in regions between primers, demonstrating that differences could not be attributed to the incorporation of primers into the recovered sequences. This was expected both because the wide spacing of amplicons within a single pool of primer pairs prevents incorporation of primers within amplified products and because all primer sequences from final amplification products were computationally removed from the sequences before assembly of genomic sequences. There are 3,354 bases in the published US657 sequence. Our data covered about 90% of the 3,354 bases of previously published US657 sequence (GenBank accession number U04908) and all of our individual amplicons in the region of overlap had US657 as the highest BLAST hit and were >99% similar to the published sequence. For HT599 the HIVM and HIVR primer panels developed 8,545 nt of data, 99.6% of the target. The HIVM-derived sequence was >99.9% similar to the HIVR-derived sequence. We recovered 100% of the overlap with the previously published HT599 sequence (2,881 nt, GenBank accession number U08447) with 99.5% similarity. To evaluate discrepancies between the jackhammering-recovered sequences and both US657 and HT599, we compared consensus sequences of combined HIVM and HIVR data with the respective published sequences by adding them to our complete genome alignment and reconstructing a maximum likelihood tree (Extended Data Fig. 8a). As expected, the independently generated sequences from each virus clustered very closely and only had short tips from their common ancestors, resulting from a very small number of substitutions in their overlapping regions. In a root-to-tip analysis (Extended Data Fig. 8b), our sequences (with a target symbol) were associated with somewhat smaller residuals than the published sequences (with a circle), indicating that our data are likely to be more accurate and, importantly, cannot contain primer remnants as this would result in much larger residuals. To construct the data sets for the analyses shown in Fig. 1 and Extended Data Figs 2, 3, 4 we searched the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) HIV database (http://hiv.lanl.gov/) for all available genome-length HIV-1 sequences from Caribbean countries, which had previously been shown to exhibit diverse subtype B lineages that fall basal to a monophyletic ‘pandemic’ clade of subtype B that accounts for most US and other non-Caribbean subtype infections2. These included sequences sampled in Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica and from Haitians who had recently immigrated to the US from Haiti (‘H3’ and ‘H5’ from 1982, ‘H6’ and ‘H7’ from 1983, ‘RF_HAT’ from 1983)2. For sequences H3, H5, H6 and H7 pol sequences were not available, but partial gag and full-length env sequences were available. For the full-genome analyses the pol gene was treated as missing data. We then added a similar number of genomes from the US from a similar time period (1982–2005), plus one each from France and the UK, as well as outgroup sequences of subtype D from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.). We called this the ‘full genome 46’ data set because it contained 46 genomes. The gag, pol and env data sets depicted in Extended Data Fig. 3 were each derived from the respective sub-genomic region of this same set of taxa. The subset of ‘full genome 46’ that contained only those US sequences sampled from 1978–1984 we called ‘full genome 38’. For the env analyses in Fig. 3 and Extended Data Fig. 5 the alignment from ref. 2 was used, with the addition of the sequences generated for the present study, additional Caribbean subtype B sequences from 2000 to 2005, and four early subtype B partial env sequences from San Francisco10. This alignment we called ‘env 105’. The subset that contained only those US sequences sampled from 1978–1984 we called ‘env 74’. For Extended Data Fig. 6 we added to ‘env 105’ a comparable number—relative to those sampled from 1978–1984 from known locations (New York, California, Georgia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey) (Extended Data Fig. 4b)–of randomly sampled sequences from 1997–2007 from NY, SF, and North Carolina (the closest available site with sufficient numbers to stand in for the Georgia ones from the 1978–1984 sample). We called this alignment ‘env 133’. In all cases sequences were manually aligned using Se-Al (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/seal/). All sequence alignments, input files, tree files and primer sequences are available at the Dryad Digital Repository (doi:10.5061/dryad.7mv7v). Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed using RAxML under on a general time-reversible model of substitution with gamma distributed rate variation among sites20. Bootstrap support values were calculated using 1,000 pseudo-replicates. To detect the presence of recombination, we first performed the Phi test21 on every data set (Extended Data Table 1). When the null hypothesis of absence of recombination was rejected (P < 0.05), we subsequently analysed the data set using RDP4 (ref. 22) and produced new alignments in which the minor recombinant regions were deleted from putative recombinants. Re-analyses of these ‘recombination-free’ data sets using the Phi test confirmed the absence of detectable recombination signal (P > 0.05, Extended Data Table 1). Time-measured phylogeographic histories were reconstructed using a Bayesian phylogenetic inference approach implemented in BEASTv1.8.2 (ref. 23). Our full probabilistic model combined sequence substitution over an unknown phylogeny calibrated in time units using a molecular clock process with dated tips24, a coalescent tree prior and a discrete diffusion process among discrete location states25. For the sequence substitution process, we used the same model as for the maximum likelihood reconstructions. We accommodated rate variation among lineages using a lognormal distribution in an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock model26 and integrated out each sampling date over an uncertainty interval of one year. Visual inspections of root to tip divergence as a function of sampling time using TempEst27 indicated a strong temporal signal with no clear outlier sequences (Extended Data Fig. 9). For most analyses, we flexibly modelled changes in effective population size through time by specifying a Bayesian skygrid non-parametric tree prior with a grid of 50 years and yearly effective population size parameters28. (The notion of ‘effective population size’, or ‘effective infections’ in epidemiological applications, comes from population genetics, and is typically lower than the full (that is, census) population size, reflecting, for example, variance in reproductive success among individuals—transmissions to new hosts in this context). To estimate viral population growth rates in both the Caribbean and US populations, we fitted a ‘nested’ coalescent model to the data set with the largest taxon sampling (env 133). This model fits a constant-logistic demographic function29 to the genealogy excluding the US clade. The initial constant phase was included in the model to accommodate the deep branching between the subtype B sequences and the African subtype D outgroup sequences. Nested within this model, a separate logistic growth model was fitted to the US clade in the genealogy. The process of discrete diffusion among locations was modelled using a general non-reversible substitution model30. In our analyses including the African subtype D outgroup lineages, we set the root state frequency to one for the African state and zero for all other possible discrete states. We obtained estimates of the transitions among locations (Markov jumps) using a stochastic mapping implementation capable of inferring the complete Markov jump history31, 32. We approximate the posterior distribution for our full probabilistic model using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. We use BEAGLE in conjunction with BEAST to improve the computational performance of our analyses33. MCMC chains were run for 50,000,000 generations, sampling every 5,000 generations. We diagnosed the runs by examining trace plots and effective samples sizes, and summarized continuous parameters (mean and 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals) using Tracer (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/tracer/) after discarding a 10% burn-in. Trees were summarized as maximum clade credibility trees using TreeAnnotator and visualized in FigTree (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/). In two specific phylogeographic analyses, we assessed (i) to what extent sequences sampled early in the US epidemic characterize the subtype B diversity in the US clade (Extended Data Fig. 6a) and (ii) to what extent the location state at the origin of the US clade can be estimated using sequences sampled later in the epidemic from three different US states (Extended Data Fig. 6b). For this purpose, we first reconstructed time-measured phylogenies for the env 133 data set using the substitution model, molecular clock model and coalescent model described above and subsequently reconstructed ancestral locations on the inferred posterior distribution of trees. For Extended Data Fig. 6a, we classified US sequences as ‘early’ or ‘late’ depending on whether they were sampled before or after (and including) 1985. For Extended Data Fig. 6b, we first pruned the necessary US sequences from the posterior distributions in order to retain only ‘late’ sequences from New York, North Carolina and California (matching the sampling from New York, Georgia and California in Fig. 3 and Extended Data Fig. 5b). In this case, the support for a NYC ancestral state is likely upheld by the presence of two basal NYC representatives, but location estimates in a star-like tree structure with long tip branches will be critically dependent on how well the diversity of any location is represented in the contemporaneous sampling, as recently noted34. Comparison of phylogeographic estimates before and after deleting minor recombinant regions from putative recombinants (Extended Data Table 1) indicated highly consistent results. All sequence alignments, input files, tree files and primer sequences are available at the Dryad Digital Repository (doi:10.5061/dryad.7mv7v). The HIV-1 sequences reported here have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KJ704787, KJ704788, KJ704789, KJ704790, KJ704791, KJ704792, KJ704793, KJ704794, KJ704795, KJ704796 and KJ704797.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The tenth SpaceX cargo resupply launch to the International Space Station, targeted for launch Feb. 18, will deliver investigations that study human health, Earth science and weather patterns The tenth SpaceX cargo resupply launch to the International Space Station, targeted for launch Feb. 18, will deliver investigations that study human health, Earth science and weather patterns. Here are some highlights of the research headed to the orbiting laboratory: Monoclonal antibodies are important for fighting off a wide range of human diseases, including cancers. These antibodies work with the natural immune system to bind to certain molecules to detect, purify and block their growth. The Microgravity Growth of Crystalline Monoclonal Antibodies for Pharmaceutical Applications (CASIS PCG 5) investigation will crystallize a human monoclonal antibody, developed by Merck Research Labs, that is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of immunological disease. Preserving these antibodies in crystals allows researchers a glimpse into how the biological molecules are arranged, which can provide new information about how they work in the body. Thus far, Earth-grown crystalline suspensions of monoclonal antibodies have proven to be too low-quality to fully model. With the absence of gravity and convection aboard the station, larger crystals with more pure compositions and structures can grow. The results from this investigation have the potential to improve the way monoclonal antibody treatments are administered on Earth. Crystallizing the antibodies could enable methods for large-scale delivery through injections rather than intravenously, and improve methods for long-term storage. Understanding crystal growth in space could benefit researchers on Earth Without proteins, the human body would be unable to repair, regulate or protect itself. Crystallizing proteins provides better views of their structure, which helps scientists to better understand how they function. Often times, proteins crystallized in microgravity are of higher quality than those crystallized on Earth. LMM Biophysics 1 explores that phenomena by examining the movement of single protein molecules in microgravity. Once scientists understand how these proteins function, they can be used to design new drugs that interact with the protein in specific ways and fight disease. Identifying proteins that benefit from microgravity crystal growth could maximize research efficiency Much like LMM Biophysics 1, LMM Biophysics 3 aims to use crystallography to examine molecules that are too small to be seen under a microscope, in order to best predict what types of drugs will interact best with certain kinds of proteins. LMM Biophysics 3 will look specifically into which types of crystals thrive and benefit from growth in microgravity, where Earth's gravity won't interfere with their formation. Currently, the success rate is poor for crystals grown even in the best of laboratories. High quality, space-grown crystals could improve research for a wide range of diseases, as well as microgravity-related problems such as radiation damage, bone loss and muscle atrophy. X Prize-winning device seeks insight into how deadly bacteria become drug-resistant Microgravity accelerates the growth of bacteria, making the space station an ideal environment to conduct a proof-of-concept investigation on the Gene-RADAR® device developed by Nanobiosym. This device is able to accurately detect, in real time and at the point of care, any disease that leaves a genetic fingerprint. Nanobiosym Predictive Pathogen Mutation Study (Nanobiosym Genes) will analyze two strains of bacterial mutations aboard the station, providing data that may be helpful in refining models of drug resistance and support the development of better medicines to counteract the resistant strains. Microgravity may hold key to scaling up stem cell cultivation for research, treatment Stem cells are used in a variety of medical therapies, including the treatment of stroke. Currently, scientists have no way of efficiently expanding the cells, a process that may be accelerated in a microgravity environment. During the Microgravity Expanded Stem Cells investigation, crew members will observe cell growth and morphological characteristics in microgravity and analyze gene expression profiles of cells grown on the station. This information will provide insight into how human cancers start and spread, which aids in the development of prevention and treatment plans. Results from this investigation could lead to the treatment of disease and injury in space, as well as provide a way to improve stem cell production for human therapy on Earth. Lightning flashes somewhere on Earth about 45 times per second, according to space-borne lightning detection instruments. This investigation continues those observations using a similar sensor aboard the station. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (STP-H5 LIS) will measure the amount, rate and energy of lightning as it strikes around the world. Understanding the processes that cause lightning and the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events is a key to improving weather predictions and saving life and property. From the vantage of the station, the LIS instrument will sample lightning over a swider geographical area than any previous sensor. Future robotic spacecraft will need advanced autopilot systems to help them safely navigate and rendezvous with other objects, as they will be operating thousands of miles from Earth. The Raven (STP-H5 Raven) studies a real-time spacecraft navigation system that provides the eyes and intelligence to see a target and steer toward it safely. Raven uses a complex system to image and track the many visiting vehicles that journey to the space station each year. Equipped with three separate sensors and high-performance, reprogrammable avionics that process imagery, Raven's algorithm converts the collected images into an accurate relative navigation solution between Raven and the other vehicle. Research from Raven can be applied toward unmanned vehicles both on Earth and in space, including potential use for systems in NASA's future human deep space exploration. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) program is one of NASA's longest running Earth-observing programs, providing long-term data to help scientists better understand and care for Earth's atmosphere. SAGE was first operated in 1979 following the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM), on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. SAGE III will measure stratospheric ozone, aerosols, and other trace gases by locking onto the sun or moon and scanning a thin profile of the atmosphere. Understanding these measurements will allow national and international leaders to make informed policy decisions regarding the protection and preservation of Earth's ozone layer. Ozone in the atmosphere protects Earth's inhabitants, including humans, plants and animals, from harmful radiation from the sun, which can cause long-term problems such as cataracts, cancer and reduced crop yield. Studying tissue regeneration in space could improve injury treatment on Earth Only a few animals, such as tadpoles and salamanders, can regrow a lost limb, but the onset of this process exists in all vertebrates. Tissue Regeneration-Bone Defect (Rodent Research-4) a U.S. National Laboratory investigation sponsored by the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, studies what prevents other vertebrates such as rodents and humans from re-growing lost bone and tissue, and how microgravity conditions impact the process. Results will provide a new understanding of the biological reasons behind a human's inability to grow a lost limb at the wound site, and could lead to new treatment options for the more than 30% of the patient population who do not respond to current options for chronic non-healing wounds. Crew members in orbit often experience reduced bone density and muscle mass, a potential consequence of microgravity-induced stress. Previous research indicates that reduced gravity can promote cell growth, making microgravity a potentially viable environment for tissue regeneration research. This investigation may be able to shed more light on why bone density decreases in microgravity and whether it may be possible to counteract it. These investigations will join many others recurring around the clock aboard the station, all benefitting future spaceflight and life on Earth. For more information about the science happening on station, visit International Space Station Research and Technology.


News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

Exploration régionale visant de nouvelles découvertes dans le camp prolifique de Rouyn-Noranda MONTREAL, QC--(Marketwired - 20 février 2017) - (" Falco " ou la " Société ") ( : FPC) a le plaisir d'annoncer qu'elle lance des activités d'exploration sur son imposante détention de terrain de 668 km2 dans le camp de Rouyn-Noranda, entourant son projet Horne 5 détenu à 100 %. Le programme envisagé de forages d'exploration de 40 000 mètres fait partie d'un budget de 10 millions de dollars alloué aux travaux d'exploration pour l'année 2017. Le programme d'exploration sera axé sur huit différentes zones, incluant le projet Horne 5, avec l'objectif de découvrir de la nouvelle minéralisation dans le camp prolifique de Rouyn-Noranda, historiquement en production. Les propriétés du Camp central sont situées dans la partie centre-sud de la position de terrain importante de Falco. Les propriétés couvrent près de 90 % du camp minier historique et comprennent plusieurs gisements de SMV de métaux de base exploités dans le passé. Les travaux d'exploration sur les propriétés du Camp central incluront approximativement de 15 000 à 18 000 mètres de forages et sont destinés à mettre à jour le modèle géologique en 3D du camp Noranda en effectuant une révision systématique et des vérifications des cibles d'exploration existantes. Plusieurs cibles prêtes à forer ont été identifiées et seront vérifiées durant la campagne. De plus, les données historiques dans et autour des anciennes mines seront compilées, et les ressources historiques et les résultats de forage seront passés en revue afin d'identifier de nouvelles opportunités et générer de nouvelles cibles. Les propriétés RIMO sont au stade préliminaire et sont situées à 25 km au nord-ouest de Rouyn-Noranda. Les travaux cibleront le prolongement vers l'ouest du levé géophysique de 2015 ainsi qu'une vérification sur le terrain des cibles géophysiques par du forage. La propriété Lac Laynes est connue pour son potentiel pour les SMV; toutefois, les travaux récents ont permis d'établir un potentiel pour une minéralisation aurifère à basse teneur en surface. En 2014, le sondage DDH 17931-14-02 foré par Falco a recoupé une brèche tectonique aurifère montrant des valeurs de 0,79 g/t Au sur 14,0 mètres, incluant 3,18 g/t Au sur 1,2 mètre. Les travaux prévus incluent une validation sur le terrain (incluant de l'échantillonnage de roches) et le forage de cibles géophysiques. La zone de Flavrian affiche une production historique de 1 million d'onces d'or. L'exploration sur Flavrian évaluera le potentiel minéral de la Syénite de Duprat, qui présente un contexte géologique similaire à celui du gîte Upper Beaver en Ontario. Les travaux comprennent approximativement 2 000 mètres de forage. Falco vérifiera également des zones minéralisées à haute teneur en or en profondeur et latéralement, ou à proximité de l'ancienne mine d'or Quesabe. Quesabe englobe plus de 30 indices d'or et de cuivre sur une superficie de 10 km2. Ces nouveaux travaux se veulent un suivi des intersections minéralisées déjà obtenues par forage, dans le but de convertir les ressources minérales à des catégories supérieures. Plusieurs cibles prêtes à forer ont été identifiées à l'aide d'un modèle 3D, le long de trois structures principales dans le secteur Quesabe (la faille Quesabe au sud, la faille Beauchemin à l'est et le système de la Brèche de St-Jude au nord), incluant notamment des extensions potentielles des zones à haute teneur du gisement principal à Quesabe. Noralex, Routhier et la région de Blake River La propriété Noralex englobe l'indice Young Buck, associé à une intrusion, et montre des similitudes avec les mines Doyon et Mouska. Les forages historiques ont retourné des valeurs aurifères à basse teneur sur de larges intersections, incluant 1,93 g/t Au sur 33,0 mètres et 1,64 g/t Au sur 24,5 mètres en forage. Les travaux comprendront du forage à raison d'approximativement 4 000 mètres sur l'indice Young Buck et dans la partie sud-ouest de la propriété. La propriété Routhier et les propriétés Blake River recevront des travaux géophysiques, l'excavation de tranchées en surface et du forage à hauteur de 3 500 mètres. Localisation des sites impliqués dans le programme d'exploration régionale La minéralisation sur le projet Horne 5 est encaissée dans une séquence volcanique felsique (connue sous le nom du Bloc felsique Horne) principalement composée de coulées rhyolitiques, de brèches rhyolitiques et de tufs à lapilli et à blocs de composition felsique. Le bloc est bordé par la faille du ruisseau Horne, au nord, et la faille Andésite, au sud, et suit un axe est-ouest. Cet axe s'étend sur une distance de 1,5 km à l'ouest de la mine Horne où de la minéralisation aurifère a été retrouvée. La zone Ouest, qui se trouve à 1 km du gîte Horne 5, a livré des résultats historiques démontrant le potentiel de ce secteur, avec des teneurs de 4,6 g/t Au sur 14,6 m, 4,3 g/t Au sur 9,3 m, et 5,5 g/t Au sur 20,6 m. Le programme de forage 2016 a permis d'identifier une nouvelle zone minéralisée à 200 mètres au sud-ouest du gîte Horne 5 : la lentille H5-SW. Les basses teneurs en or caractéristiques de la lentille H5-SW suggèrent qu'il pourrait s'agir d'un prolongement de la zone Ouest, confirmant ainsi la continuité de la minéralisation vers l'ouest. De nouveaux forages d'exploration vérifieront l'extension vers l'ouest, entre la zone Ouest et la lentille H5 SW. Environ 10 000 mètres de forage sont prévus. Trois principales zones sont visées sur une distance totale d'environ 1,4 km, entre 300 et 1 200 mètres de profondeur verticale. Claude Bernier, directeur de l'exploration (géo., ing.), est la personne qualifiée pour ce communiqué tel que défini par le Règlement 43-101 sur l'information concernant les projets miniers. Il a révisé et vérifié les renseignements techniques contenus dans ce communiqué. M. Bernier est un employé de Falco et n'est donc pas indépendant. Ressources Falco ltée est l'un des plus grands détenteurs de titres miniers dans la province de Québec, avec un vaste portefeuille de propriétés dans la ceinture de roches vertes de l'Abitibi. Falco contrôle 68 800 hectares de terrains dans le camp minier de Rouyn-Noranda, ce qui représente 70 % du camp dans son ensemble et qui comprend 13 anciens sites miniers pour l'or et les métaux de base. La propriété principale de Falco est le projet Horne 5 situé dans l'empreinte de l'ancienne mine Horne, laquelle a été exploitée par Noranda de 1927 à 1976 et a produit 11,6 millions d'onces d'or et 2,5 milliards de livres de cuivre. Redevances Aurifères Osisko Ltée est le plus important actionnaire de la Société et détient actuellement 14,2 % des actions ordinaires en circulation de la Société. La Bourse de croissance TSX et son fournisseur de services de règlementation (au sens attribué à ce terme dans les politiques de la Bourse de croissance TSX) n'acceptent aucune responsabilité quant à la pertinence et à l'exactitude du présent communiqué. Le présent communiqué contient des énoncés prospectifs et des renseignements prospectifs (collectivement, les " énoncés prospectifs ") au sens des lois applicables sur les valeurs mobilières et de la loi des États-Unisintitulée " Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 ". Tout énoncé, autre qu'un énoncé basé sur des faits historiques, est un énoncé prospectif. De façon générale, les énoncés prospectifs peuvent être identifiés par l'emploi de termes comme " planifie ", " espère ", " estime ", " prévoit ", " anticipe ", " croit " ou des variantes de ces mots ou expressions ou encore lorsqu'ils indiquent que certains actes, évènements ou résultats " pourraient " ou " devraient " être posés, " se produiront " ou " seront atteints ", et incluent, sans s'y limiter, la réalisation des objectifs établis dans le cadre de la campagne de forage sur la propriété Horne 5 et sur les propriétés d'exploration régionales. Les énoncés prospectifs impliquent des risques, des incertitudes et d'autres facteurs qui pourraient faire en sorte que les résultats réels, le rendement, les perspectives et les opportunités soient sensiblement différents de ceux exprimés ou suggérés par de tels énoncés prospectifs. Les facteurs qui pourraient faire en sorte que les résultats réels soient sensiblement différents de ceux compris dans ces énoncés prospectifs comprennent la conformité des données historiques mentionnées dans ce communiqué et ceux compris dans les documents publics de Falco, incluant les rapports de gestion de la direction déposés sur SEDAR, auwww.sedar.com. Bien que Falco soit d'avis que les hypothèses et les facteurs pris en compte dans l'élaboration des énoncés prospectifs sont raisonnables, l'on ne devrait pas se fier indûment aux énoncés prospectifs, qui s'appliquent uniquement en date du présent communiqué, et rien ne garantit que de tels évènements se produiront dans les délais indiqués ou à tout autre moment. Sauf si requis par les lois applicables, Falco décline toute intention ou obligation d'actualiser ou de réviser tout énoncé prospectif, que ce soit en raison de nouvelles informations, d'évènements futurs ou pour toute autre raison.


Phased array technology available now to meet emerging billion dollar 5G markets TowerJazz, the global specialty foundry leader, and The University of California, San Diego (UCSD), a recognized leader for microwave, millimeter-wave, mixed-signal RFICs, and phased arrays, demonstrate for the first time, a greater than 12 Gbps, 5G phased-array chipset.  This chipset demonstrates that products can be fabricated today to meet the emerging 5G telecom standards for the next wave of worldwide mobile communications. The chipset operates at 28 to 31 GHz, a new communications band planned for release by the FCC. The chipset uses TowerJazz’s high volume SiGe BiCMOS technology, with record performance at the 28GHz band, representing a more than 10-times improvement in data rate vs. 4G LTE, and today meets many other technical specification requirements of the emerging 5G standard. About the 5G Chip Sets and H3 Process The 5G transmit and receive chipsets reported today achieved more than 12 Gbps data rates at 30 meters separation, and greater than 3 Gbps when separated by 300 meters, using two polarizations.  The UCSD chip utilizes 16-64-256 QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) schemes to achieve these data rates.  The measured EVM (error vector magnitude), a figure of merit used to determine the quality of the data received, suggests both chipsets are already performing at 4G LTE levels.  The 64-QAM link reported today at 12 Gbps, has an EVM < 5% at 30 meters.  The 16 QAM link at 3 Gbps has an EVM <12% at 300m and over all scan angles, and all with no FEC or equalization. The system operates in a dual-polarization mode.  In addition, the 4 x 8 (32-element) phased-arrays use SiGe core chips and are assembled on a multi-layer printed-circuit board together with the antennas.  Record figures of merit such as NF (Noise Figure), EIRP (Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power), and EVM have been demonstrated. “The TowerJazz H3 platform is truly great, and allows for 13-20 dBm transmit power per element with high PAE (power-added efficiency) of 20% at 28 GHz. Also, it offers very low-noise transistors resulting in an LNA NF of 2.4 dB at 28 GHz, high-Q inductors and low-loss transmission-lines for on-chip power distribution,” said Prof. Gabriel Rebeiz, member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, distinguished professor and wireless communications industry chair at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. By using TowerJazz’s SiGe BiCMOS technology, UCSD’s design team, led by graduate student Kerim Kibaroglu and post-doctoral fellow Mustafa Sayginer, and with the use of state-of-the-art Keysight equipment such as the 8195A Arbitrary Wave Generator, the DSOS804A Digital Scope and the Signal Studio suite with the VSA software, was able to achieve record links at 30 to 300 meters over all scan angles. Prof. Rebeiz added, “We thank TowerJazz for this wonderful process and look forward to continued collaboration.” Today, peak wireless data rates for 4G LTE can be up to 1 Gbps, but are nominally lower around 100 to 300 Mbps.  Here, TowerJazz has demonstrated more than 10x those speeds using the UCSD 5G next-generation mobile designs made with its high volume H3 technology. “We continue to release additional technology nodes, e.g. our H5 and H6, which have even lower noise devices and higher speed capabilities. These technologies will enable 5G designers to further increase data rates through higher QAM modulation schemes, or shrink chip sizes and increase the distance over which these 5G chips can perform,” said Dr. David Howard, Executive Director and TowerJazz Fellow.   “Also, as we add new features to our SiGe Terabit Platform, we support easy evolution of customer technology for fast time to market. This allows our customers to grow their technology roadmap and products as the 5G standards evolve.” Availability The SBC18H3 process, as well as H4, H5 processes, are available through TowerJazz at www.towerjazz.com. Chips used in the technology demonstrations are available from UCSD and interested parties should contact Prof. Gabriel M. Rebeiz; Department of Electrical and Computing Engineering at UCSD, 858/336-3186 or rebeiz@ece.ucsd.edu. About Phased Arrays Phased arrays allow the electronic steering of an antenna beam in any direction and with high antenna gain by controlling the phase at each antenna element. The radiated beam can be “moved in space” using entirely electronic means through control of the phase and amplitude at each antenna element used to generate the beam. This beam steering technique is much more compact and much faster than mechanically steered arrays. Furthermore, phased arrays allow the creation of deep nulls in the radiation pattern to mitigate strong interference signals from several different directions. They have been in use since the 1950s in defense applications and are receiving intense commercial interest for automotive (radars) and communication (5G) chip markets. About UCSD The University of California, San Diego, is one of the leading Universities in mixed-signal, microwave and mm-wave RFICs, digital communications, applied electromagnetics, RF MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) and nano-electronics research, and is home to the Center for Wireless Communications.  UCSD has an annual research budget exceeding $850M, and its Jacobs School of Engineering is ranked as Number 17 in the US-News and World Report 2015 ranking.  The Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, consisting of 46 teaching tenured faculty, trains approximately 400 graduate students per year. For more information, please visit www.ece.ucsd.edu and www.ucsd.edu. About TowerJazz Tower Semiconductor Ltd. (NASDAQ:TSEM) (TASE:TSEM) and its fully owned U.S. subsidiaries Jazz Semiconductor, Inc. and TowerJazz Texas Inc., operate collectively under the brand name TowerJazz, the global specialty foundry leader. TowerJazz manufactures integrated circuits, offering a broad range of customizable process technologies including: SiGe, BiCMOS, mixed-signal/CMOS, RF CMOS, CMOS image sensor, integrated power management (BCD and 700V), and MEMS. TowerJazz also provides a world-class design enablement platform for a quick and accurate design cycle as well as Transfer Optimization and development Process Services (TOPS) to IDMs and fabless companies that need to expand capacity. To provide multi-fab sourcing and extended capacity for its customers, TowerJazz operates two manufacturing facilities in Israel (150mm and 200mm), two in the U.S. (200mm) and three additional facilities in Japan (two 200mm and one 300mm) through TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Co. (TPSCo), established with Panasonic Corporation of which TowerJazz has the majority holding. Through TPSCo, TowerJazz provides leading edge 45nm CMOS, 65nm RF CMOS and 65nm 1.12um pixel technologies, including the most advanced image sensor technologies. For more information, please visit www.towerjazz.com or www.tpsemico.com. Safe Harbor Regarding Forward-Looking Statements This press release includes forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Actual results may vary from those projected or implied by such forward-looking statements. A complete discussion of risks and uncertainties that may affect the accuracy of forward-looking statements included in this press release or which may otherwise affect TowerJazz’s business is included under the heading "Risk Factors" in Tower’s most recent filings on Forms 20-F, F-3, F-4 and 6-K, as were filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and the Israel Securities Authority and Jazz’s most recent filings on Forms 10-K and 10-Q, as were filed with the SEC, respectively. Tower and Jazz do not intend to update, and expressly disclaim any obligation to update, the information contained in this release.


Phased array technology available now to meet emerging billion dollar 5G markets TowerJazz, the global specialty foundry leader, and The University of California, San Diego (UCSD), a recognized leader for microwave, millimeter-wave, mixed-signal RFICs, and phased arrays, demonstrate for the first time, a greater than 12 Gbps, 5G phased-array chipset.  This chipset demonstrates that products can be fabricated today to meet the emerging 5G telecom standards for the next wave of worldwide mobile communications. The chipset operates at 28 to 31 GHz, a new communications band planned for release by the FCC. The chipset uses TowerJazz’s high volume SiGe BiCMOS technology, with record performance at the 28GHz band, representing a more than 10-times improvement in data rate vs. 4G LTE, and today meets many other technical specification requirements of the emerging 5G standard. About the 5G Chip Sets and H3 Process The 5G transmit and receive chipsets reported today achieved more than 12 Gbps data rates at 30 meters separation, and greater than 3 Gbps when separated by 300 meters, using two polarizations.  The UCSD chip utilizes 16-64-256 QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) schemes to achieve these data rates.  The measured EVM (error vector magnitude), a figure of merit used to determine the quality of the data received, suggests both chipsets are already performing at 4G LTE levels.  The 64-QAM link reported today at 12 Gbps, has an EVM < 5% at 30 meters.  The 16 QAM link at 3 Gbps has an EVM <12% at 300m and over all scan angles, and all with no FEC or equalization. The system operates in a dual-polarization mode.  In addition, the 4 x 8 (32-element) phased-arrays use SiGe core chips and are assembled on a multi-layer printed-circuit board together with the antennas.  Record figures of merit such as NF (Noise Figure), EIRP (Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power), and EVM have been demonstrated. “The TowerJazz H3 platform is truly great, and allows for 13-20 dBm transmit power per element with high PAE (power-added efficiency) of 20% at 28 GHz. Also, it offers very low-noise transistors resulting in an LNA NF of 2.4 dB at 28 GHz, high-Q inductors and low-loss transmission-lines for on-chip power distribution,” said Prof. Gabriel Rebeiz, member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, distinguished professor and wireless communications industry chair at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. By using TowerJazz’s SiGe BiCMOS technology, UCSD’s design team, led by graduate student Kerim Kibaroglu and post-doctoral fellow Mustafa Sayginer, and with the use of state-of-the-art Keysight equipment such as the 8195A Arbitrary Wave Generator, the DSOS804A Digital Scope and the Signal Studio suite with the VSA software, was able to achieve record links at 30 to 300 meters over all scan angles. Prof. Rebeiz added, “We thank TowerJazz for this wonderful process and look forward to continued collaboration.” Today, peak wireless data rates for 4G LTE can be up to 1 Gbps, but are nominally lower around 100 to 300 Mbps.  Here, TowerJazz has demonstrated more than 10x those speeds using the UCSD 5G next-generation mobile designs made with its high volume H3 technology. “We continue to release additional technology nodes, e.g. our H5 and H6, which have even lower noise devices and higher speed capabilities. These technologies will enable 5G designers to further increase data rates through higher QAM modulation schemes, or shrink chip sizes and increase the distance over which these 5G chips can perform,” said Dr. David Howard, Executive Director and TowerJazz Fellow.   “Also, as we add new features to our SiGe Terabit Platform, we support easy evolution of customer technology for fast time to market. This allows our customers to grow their technology roadmap and products as the 5G standards evolve.” Availability The SBC18H3 process, as well as H4, H5 processes, are available through TowerJazz at www.towerjazz.com. Chips used in the technology demonstrations are available from UCSD and interested parties should contact Prof. Gabriel M. Rebeiz; Department of Electrical and Computing Engineering at UCSD, 858/336-3186 or rebeiz@ece.ucsd.edu. About Phased Arrays Phased arrays allow the electronic steering of an antenna beam in any direction and with high antenna gain by controlling the phase at each antenna element. The radiated beam can be “moved in space” using entirely electronic means through control of the phase and amplitude at each antenna element used to generate the beam. This beam steering technique is much more compact and much faster than mechanically steered arrays. Furthermore, phased arrays allow the creation of deep nulls in the radiation pattern to mitigate strong interference signals from several different directions. They have been in use since the 1950s in defense applications and are receiving intense commercial interest for automotive (radars) and communication (5G) chip markets. About UCSD The University of California, San Diego, is one of the leading Universities in mixed-signal, microwave and mm-wave RFICs, digital communications, applied electromagnetics, RF MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) and nano-electronics research, and is home to the Center for Wireless Communications.  UCSD has an annual research budget exceeding $850M, and its Jacobs School of Engineering is ranked as Number 17 in the US-News and World Report 2015 ranking.  The Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, consisting of 46 teaching tenured faculty, trains approximately 400 graduate students per year. For more information, please visit www.ece.ucsd.edu and www.ucsd.edu. About TowerJazz Tower Semiconductor Ltd. (NASDAQ:TSEM) (TASE:TSEM) and its fully owned U.S. subsidiaries Jazz Semiconductor, Inc. and TowerJazz Texas Inc., operate collectively under the brand name TowerJazz, the global specialty foundry leader. TowerJazz manufactures integrated circuits, offering a broad range of customizable process technologies including: SiGe, BiCMOS, mixed-signal/CMOS, RF CMOS, CMOS image sensor, integrated power management (BCD and 700V), and MEMS. TowerJazz also provides a world-class design enablement platform for a quick and accurate design cycle as well as Transfer Optimization and development Process Services (TOPS) to IDMs and fabless companies that need to expand capacity. To provide multi-fab sourcing and extended capacity for its customers, TowerJazz operates two manufacturing facilities in Israel (150mm and 200mm), two in the U.S. (200mm) and three additional facilities in Japan (two 200mm and one 300mm) through TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Co. (TPSCo), established with Panasonic Corporation of which TowerJazz has the majority holding. Through TPSCo, TowerJazz provides leading edge 45nm CMOS, 65nm RF CMOS and 65nm 1.12um pixel technologies, including the most advanced image sensor technologies. For more information, please visit www.towerjazz.com or www.tpsemico.com. Safe Harbor Regarding Forward-Looking Statements This press release includes forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Actual results may vary from those projected or implied by such forward-looking statements. A complete discussion of risks and uncertainties that may affect the accuracy of forward-looking statements included in this press release or which may otherwise affect TowerJazz’s business is included under the heading "Risk Factors" in Tower’s most recent filings on Forms 20-F, F-3, F-4 and 6-K, as were filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and the Israel Securities Authority and Jazz’s most recent filings on Forms 10-K and 10-Q, as were filed with the SEC, respectively. Tower and Jazz do not intend to update, and expressly disclaim any obligation to update, the information contained in this release.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

HOUSTON, TX, February 16, 2017 /24-7PressRelease/ -- The tenth SpaceX cargo resupply launch to the International Space Station, targeted for launch Feb. 18, will deliver investigations that study human health, Earth science and weather patterns. Here are some highlights of the research headed to the orbiting laboratory: Crystal growth investigation could improve drug delivery, manufacturing Monoclonal antibodies are important for fighting off a wide range of human diseases, including cancers. These antibodies work with the natural immune system to bind to certain molecules to detect, purify and block their growth. The Microgravity Growth of Crystalline Monoclonal Antibodies for Pharmaceutical Applications (CASIS PCG 5) investigation will crystallize a human monoclonal antibody, developed by Merck Research Labs, that is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of immunological disease. Preserving these antibodies in crystals allows researchers a glimpse into how the biological molecules are arranged, which can provide new information about how they work in the body. Thus far, Earth-grown crystalline suspensions of monoclonal antibodies have proven to be too low-quality to fully model. With the absence of gravity and convection aboard the station, larger crystals with more pure compositions and structures can grow. The results from this investigation have the potential to improve the way monoclonal antibody treatments are administered on Earth. Crystallizing the antibodies could enable methods for large-scale delivery through injections rather than intravenously, and improve methods for long-term storage. Understanding crystal growth in space could benefit researchers on Earth Without proteins, the human body would be unable to repair, regulate or protect itself. Crystallizing proteins provides better views of their structure, which helps scientists to better understand how they function. Often times, proteins crystallized in microgravity are of higher quality than those crystallized on Earth. LMM Biophysics 1 explores that phenomena by examining the movement of single protein molecules in microgravity. Once scientists understand how these proteins function, they can be used to design new drugs that interact with the protein in specific ways and fight disease. Identifying proteins that benefit from microgravity crystal growth could maximize research efficiency Much like LMM Biophysics 1, LMM Biophysics 3 aims to use crystallography to examine molecules that are too small to be seen under a microscope, in order to best predict what types of drugs will interact best with certain kinds of proteins. LMM Biophysics 3 will look specifically into which types of crystals thrive and benefit from growth in microgravity, where Earth's gravity won't interfere with their formation. Currently, the success rate is poor for crystals grown even in the best of laboratories. High quality, space-grown crystals could improve research for a wide range of diseases, as well as microgravity-related problems such as radiation damage, bone loss and muscle atrophy. X Prize-winning device seeks insight into how deadly bacteria become drug-resistant Microgravity accelerates the growth of bacteria, making the space station an ideal environment to conduct a proof-of-concept investigation on the Gene-RADAR device developed by Nanobiosym. This device is able to accurately detect, in real time and at the point of care, any disease that leaves a genetic fingerprint. Nanobiosym Predictive Pathogen Mutation Study (Nanobiosym Genes) will analyze two strains of bacterial mutations aboard the station, providing data that may be helpful in refining models of drug resistance and support the development of better medicines to counteract the resistant strains. Microgravity may hold key to scaling up stem cell cultivation for research, treatment Stem cells are used in a variety of medical therapies, including the treatment of stroke. Currently, scientists have no way of efficiently expanding the cells, a process that may be accelerated in a microgravity environment. During the Microgravity Expanded Stem Cells investigation, crew members will observe cell growth and morphological characteristics in microgravity and analyze gene expression profiles of cells grown on the station. This information will provide insight into how human cancers start and spread, which aids in the development of prevention and treatment plans. Results from this investigation could lead to the treatment of disease and injury in space, as well as provide a way to improve stem cell production for human therapy on Earth. Space-based lightning sensor could improve climate monitoring Lightning flashes somewhere on Earth about 45 times per second, according to space-borne lightning detection instruments. This investigation continues those observations using a similar sensor aboard the station. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (STP-H5 LIS) will measure the amount, rate and energy of lightning as it strikes around the world. Understanding the processes that cause lightning and the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events is a key to improving weather predictions and saving life and property. From the vantage of the station, the LIS instrument will sample lightning over a swider geographical area than any previous sensor. Raven seeks to save resources with versatile autonomous technologies Future robotic spacecraft will need advanced autopilot systems to help them safely navigate and rendezvous with other objects, as they will be operating thousands of miles from Earth. The Raven (STP-H5 Raven) studies a real-time spacecraft navigation system that provides the eyes and intelligence to see a target and steer toward it safely. Raven uses a complex system to image and track the many visiting vehicles that journey to the space station each year. Equipped with three separate sensors and high-performance, reprogrammable avionics that process imagery, Raven's algorithm converts the collected images into an accurate relative navigation solution between Raven and the other vehicle. Research from Raven can be applied toward unmanned vehicles both on Earth and in space, including potential use for systems in NASA's future human deep space exploration. Understanding Earth's atmosphere health could inform policy, protection The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) program is one of NASA's longest running Earth-observing programs, providing long-term data to help scientists better understand and care for Earth's atmosphere. SAGE was first operated in 1979 following the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM), on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. SAGE III will measure stratospheric ozone, aerosols, and other trace gases by locking onto the sun or moon and scanning a thin profile of the atmosphere. Understanding these measurements will allow national and international leaders to make informed policy decisions regarding the protection and preservation of Earth's ozone layer. Ozone in the atmosphere protects Earth's inhabitants, including humans, plants and animals, from harmful radiation from the sun, which can cause long-term problems such as cataracts, cancer and reduced crop yield. Studying tissue regeneration in space could improve injury treatment on Earth Only a few animals, such as tadpoles and salamanders, can regrow a lost limb, but the onset of this process exists in all vertebrates. Tissue Regeneration-Bone Defect (Rodent Research-4) a U.S. National Laboratory investigation sponsored by the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, studies what prevents other vertebrates such as rodents and humans from re-growing lost bone and tissue, and how microgravity conditions impact the process. Results will provide a new understanding of the biological reasons behind a human's inability to grow a lost limb at the wound site, and could lead to new treatment options for the more than 30% of the patient population who do not respond to current options for chronic non-healing wounds. Crew members in orbit often experience reduced bone density and muscle mass, a potential consequence of microgravity-induced stress. Previous research indicates that reduced gravity can promote cell growth, making microgravity a potentially viable environment for tissue regeneration research. This investigation may be able to shed more light on why bone density decreases in microgravity and whether it may be possible to counteract it. These investigations will join many others recurring around the clock aboard the station, all benefitting future spaceflight and life on Earth. For more information about the science happening on station, visit International Space Station Research and Technology.


Monoclonal antibodies are important for fighting off a wide range of human diseases, including cancers. These antibodies work with the natural immune system to bind to certain molecules to detect, purify and block their growth. The Microgravity Growth of Crystalline Monoclonal Antibodies for Pharmaceutical Applications (CASIS PCG 5) investigation will crystallize a human monoclonal antibody, developed by Merck Research Labs, that is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of immunological disease. Preserving these antibodies in crystals allows researchers a glimpse into how the biological molecules are arranged, which can provide new information about how they work in the body. Thus far, Earth-grown crystalline suspensions of monoclonal antibodies have proven to be too low-quality to fully model. With the absence of gravity and convection aboard the station, larger crystals with more pure compositions and structures can grow. The results from this investigation have the potential to improve the way monoclonal antibody treatments are administered on Earth. Crystallizing the antibodies could enable methods for large-scale delivery through injections rather than intravenously, and improve methods for long-term storage. Understanding crystal growth in space could benefit researchers on Earth Without proteins, the human body would be unable to repair, regulate or protect itself. Crystallizing proteins provides better views of their structure, which helps scientists to better understand how they function. Often times, proteins crystallized in microgravity are of higher quality than those crystallized on Earth. LMM Biophysics 1 explores that phenomena by examining the movement of single protein molecules in microgravity. Once scientists understand how these proteins function, they can be used to design new drugs that interact with the protein in specific ways and fight disease. Identifying proteins that benefit from microgravity crystal growth could maximize research efficiency Much like LMM Biophysics 1, LMM Biophysics 3 aims to use crystallography to examine molecules that are too small to be seen under a microscope, in order to best predict what types of drugs will interact best with certain kinds of proteins. LMM Biophysics 3 will look specifically into which types of crystals thrive and benefit from growth in microgravity, where Earth's gravity won't interfere with their formation. Currently, the success rate is poor for crystals grown even in the best of laboratories. High quality, space-grown crystals could improve research for a wide range of diseases, as well as microgravity-related problems such as radiation damage, bone loss and muscle atrophy. X Prize-winning device seeks insight into how deadly bacteria become drug-resistant Microgravity accelerates the growth of bacteria, making the space station an ideal environment to conduct a proof-of-concept investigation on the Gene-RADAR® device developed by Nanobiosym. This device is able to accurately detect, in real time and at the point of care, any disease that leaves a genetic fingerprint. Nanobiosym Predictive Pathogen Mutation Study (Nanobiosym Genes) will analyze two strains of bacterial mutations aboard the station, providing data that may be helpful in refining models of drug resistance and support the development of better medicines to counteract the resistant strains. Microgravity may hold key to scaling up stem cell cultivation for research, treatment Stem cells are used in a variety of medical therapies, including the treatment of stroke. Currently, scientists have no way of efficiently expanding the cells, a process that may be accelerated in a microgravity environment. During the Microgravity Expanded Stem Cells investigation, crew members will observe cell growth and morphological characteristics in microgravity and analyze gene expression profiles of cells grown on the station. This information will provide insight into how human cancers start and spread, which aids in the development of prevention and treatment plans. Results from this investigation could lead to the treatment of disease and injury in space, as well as provide a way to improve stem cell production for human therapy on Earth. Lightning flashes somewhere on Earth about 45 times per second, according to space-borne lightning detection instruments. This investigation continues those observations using a similar sensor aboard the station. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (STP-H5 LIS) will measure the amount, rate and energy of lightning as it strikes around the world. Understanding the processes that cause lightning and the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events is a key to improving weather predictions and saving life and property. From the vantage of the station, the LIS instrument will sample lightning over a swider geographical area than any previous sensor. Future robotic spacecraft will need advanced autopilot systems to help them safely navigate and rendezvous with other objects, as they will be operating thousands of miles from Earth. The Raven (STP-H5 Raven) studies a real-time spacecraft navigation system that provides the eyes and intelligence to see a target and steer toward it safely. Raven uses a complex system to image and track the many visiting vehicles that journey to the space station each year. Equipped with three separate sensors and high-performance, reprogrammable avionics that process imagery, Raven's algorithm converts the collected images into an accurate relative navigation solution between Raven and the other vehicle. Research from Raven can be applied toward unmanned vehicles both on Earth and in space, including potential use for systems in NASA's future human deep space exploration. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) program is one of NASA's longest running Earth-observing programs, providing long-term data to help scientists better understand and care for Earth's atmosphere. SAGE was first operated in 1979 following the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM), on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. SAGE III will measure stratospheric ozone, aerosols, and other trace gases by locking onto the sun or moon and scanning a thin profile of the atmosphere. Understanding these measurements will allow national and international leaders to make informed policy decisions regarding the protection and preservation of Earth's ozone layer. Ozone in the atmosphere protects Earth's inhabitants, including humans, plants and animals, from harmful radiation from the sun, which can cause long-term problems such as cataracts, cancer and reduced crop yield. Studying tissue regeneration in space could improve injury treatment on Earth Only a few animals, such as tadpoles and salamanders, can regrow a lost limb, but the onset of this process exists in all vertebrates. Tissue Regeneration-Bone Defect (Rodent Research-4) a U.S. National Laboratory investigation sponsored by the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, studies what prevents other vertebrates such as rodents and humans from re-growing lost bone and tissue, and how microgravity conditions impact the process. Results will provide a new understanding of the biological reasons behind a human's inability to grow a lost limb at the wound site, and could lead to new treatment options for the more than 30% of the patient population who do not respond to current options for chronic non-healing wounds. Crew members in orbit often experience reduced bone density and muscle mass, a potential consequence of microgravity-induced stress. Previous research indicates that reduced gravity can promote cell growth, making microgravity a potentially viable environment for tissue regeneration research. This investigation may be able to shed more light on why bone density decreases in microgravity and whether it may be possible to counteract it.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

A gathering of prominent Town officials recently celebrated at the Ribbon Cutting Ceremony of the long-awaited Hingham Harbor Timber Pedestrian Bridge, a concept that has been fundamental in the development of the highly anticipated community project. Decero™ Designed and fully ADA compliant, the York Timber Pedestrian Bridge spans 89 feet long by 12 feet wide. With an H5 capacity, the wood crossing enhances the “wharf feel”, floating over the water with ease - adding aesthetic allure and charm to the grant-funded project. A safe stroll from the bathing beach, boat ramp & Town Pier area to Veteran’s Memorial Park, pedestrians can now relish in the expansive exterior as they walk to Hingham Maritime Center at Barnes Wharf. The town’s goal of creating a waterfront park and transforming Hingham Harbor into a destination was appreciated and supported by Lt. Governor Karyn Polito in her recent visit to the developed site. As part of her delegation’s stop in the area, Town Project Engineer Roger Fernandes enthusiastically conveyed, “Our community [recently] celebrated the completion of the Whitney Wharf Pedestrian Bridge. The bridge had been a long-envisioned ambition of ours and the Town is pleased to see this goal become reality. We want to thank the YBC crews and their overall team for the excellent job they did – if we have another opportunity like this, we would be delighted to work with your firm again. YBC is a great team!” The long awaited sea-crossing bridge features uniquely designed ramps, decks and enclosures – a superior state of the art design that now offers an alternative safe passage with relaxing vantage points of the breathtaking water views. As part of the second phase of the Hingham Harbor Walk, visitors and residents can now access local businesses, integrating the city’s requirements and ensuring the protection of the waters. Combining the Town’s vision for the Hingham Harbor Marina, York Bridge Concepts was successful in bringing the city’s ten-year concept to reality. Throughout the Decero ™ Design process, the unique nautical YBC Proprietary Coating was developed to mimic a weathered look on the bridge and deck. The York Timber Structure combines masterfully with the overall design and look of the Hingham Harbor Marina with a blended color palette that merges seamlessly into the landscape. William S. Reardon of the Hingham Journal states, “York Bridge Concepts, the builders of the structure, are craftsmen who have constructed a bridge for the citizens of Hingham to be proud of.” York Bridge Concepts, Inc. (YBC) is the nation's largest on-site timber vehicular bridge builder. YBC works with industry-leading owners and developers on prestigious projects throughout the U.S. and internationally, creating more than just a solution for crossing lakes, streams, creeks, wetlands or ravines. In this competitive real estate market, developers who want to ensure that their project stands apart from the competition use York Bridges to add value and create a feeling of exclusivity, warmth, and quality for their customers. Based in Lutz, Florida, with 32 years of experience, YBC has become well-known for their expertise and cutting-edge innovation in the Longevity and Architectural beauty of timber bridge design. For more information, contact Gil York at (800) 226-4178 ext. 109 or visit http://www.ybc.com.


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: phys.org

The government confirmed that the highly virulent H5 strain was detected in birds at a chicken farm in Niigata, where about 40 of them were found dead Monday. Dead ducks at a farm in another prefecture of Aomori also tested H5 positive. Culling of about 310,000 birds began Tuesday at the Niigata farm and will continue through Friday. Workers in hazmat suits dug holes and dumped dead birds in them to contain the spread of virus. About 165,000 ducks in Aomori were also being culled. Officials restricted the movements of poultry and eggs within 3 kilometers (5 miles) of the infected farms. About 60 chicken farms operate in the neighborhood of the affected farm in Niigata, where about half a million chickens are raised. The farm in Aomori and two other neighborhood operators are specializing in French duck known as "Barbarie." Suspected bird flu cases have been found in wild birds in those areas since early November. Environment Minister Koichi Yamamoto told reporters that his ministry is sending experts to the areas for investigation, while raising the caution level to the highest level. The Agricultural Ministry has also dispatched an investigative team to both prefectures. Explore further: Dutch kill 190,000 ducks to contain bird flu outbreak


News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

MONTREAL, QC--(Marketwired - February 20, 2017) - Falco Resources Ltd. ("Falco" or the "Company") (TSX VENTURE: FPC) is pleased to announce that it is initiating exploration activities on its large 668 square kilometre land package in the Rouyn-Noranda Camp, which surrounds its 100% owned Horne 5 Project. The planned 40,000 metre exploration drill campaign is part of a $10 million budget allocated to 2017 exploration work. The exploration program will concentrate on eight different areas, including the Horne 5 project, with the objective of discovering new mineralization in the prolific past-producing Rouyn-Noranda camp. Central Camp Properties The Central Camp properties are located in the south-central portion of Falco's considerable land position. The properties cover approximately 90% of the historical mining camp and include several past producing VMS base metal deposits. Exploration work on the Central Camp properties will include approximately 15,000 to 18,000 metres of drilling, and is aimed at updating the 3D Noranda Camp geological model with a systematic review and testing of existing exploration targets. Numerous drill-ready targets have been identified and will be tested during the campaign. In addition, historical data compilation in and around former producing mines will be conducted, reviewing historical resources and drilling results to further identify new opportunities and generate new targets. RIMO The RIMO properties are greenfield exploration projects located 25 km north west of Rouyn-Noranda. Work will focus on the western extension of the 2015 geophysical survey and field testing of geophysical targets with new drilling. Lac Laynes The Lac Laynes property is known for its VMS potential, however recent work has determined potential low grade gold mineralization at surface. In 2014 DDH 17931-14-02 drilled by Falco intersected a gold bearing tectonic breccia with values of 0.79 g/t Au over 14.0 metres, including 3.18 g/t Au over 1.2 metres. Planned work includes field validation (including rock sampling) and drilling of geophysical targets. Flavrian The Flavrian area has a historical production of 1 million ounces gold. Exploration at Flavrian will evaluate the mineral potential of the Duprat Syenite, which shows similar geological context to the Upper Beaver deposit in Ontario. Work includes approximately 2,000 metres of drilling. Falco will also test for high-grade gold zones at depth and along strike, or proximal to the former producer Quesabe gold deposit. Quesabe encompasses more than 30 gold and copper showings over a 10 km2 area. The new work will follow-up on previously drilled mineralized intersections with the aim to upgrade mineral resources. Numerous drill-ready targets have been identified using a 3D model along three main structures in the Quesabe area (the Quesabe Fault to the south, the Beauchemin Fault to the east and the St-Jude Breccia system to the North), including potential high-grade extensions of the Quesabe main deposit. Noralex, Routhier and Blake River Area The Noralex property includes the Young Buck (intrusion related) showing, which bears similarities with the Doyon and Mouska mines. Historical drilling has returned low grade gold values over wide intercepts, including 1.93 g/t Au over 33.0 metres and 1.64 g/t Au over 24.5 metres. Work will include drilling approximately 4,000 metres on the Young Buck showing and drilling on the south west portion of the property. The Routhier property and Blake River properties will see new geophysics, surface trenching and drilling of approximately 3,500 metres. The Horne 5 mineralization is hosted in a felsic volcanic sequence (known as the Horne Felsic Block) mostly composed of rhyolitic flows, rhyolite breccias and felsic lapilli to blocky tuffs. The block is confined by the Horne Creek Fault to the north, the Andesite Fault to the south and follows an East West trend. The trend extends over 1.5km to the west of the Horne mine, where gold mineralization has been recognized. The West Zone which occurs 1 km from the Horne 5 deposit has returned historical results showing the good potential for this area, including: 4.6 g/t Au over 14.6 m, 4.3g/t Au over 9.3 m and 5.5 g/t Au over 20.6m. The 2016 drill program identified a new mineralized zone 200 metres to the South West of the Horne 5 deposit, the H5-SW zone. The low gold grades defining the H5-SW zone indicates it could be an extension of the West Zone, which confirms the continuation of the mineralization in western direction. New exploration drilling will test the western extension between the West Zone and the H5-SW zone. Approximately 10,000 metres of drilling is planned. Three main areas are being targeted covering a total distance of approximately 1.4km long, and between 300 metres and 1,200 metres of vertical depth. Claude Bernier, Exploration Manager, (P.Geo. Eng.) is the qualified person for this release as defined by National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects and has reviewed and verified the technical information contained herein. Mr. Bernier is an employee of Falco and is non-independent. Falco Resources Ltd. is one of the largest mineral claim holders in the Province of Québec, with extensive land holdings in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt. Falco owns 68,800 hectares of land in the Rouyn-Noranda mining camp, which represents 70% of the entire camp and includes 13 former gold and base metal mine sites. Falco's principal property is the Horne 5 Project located in the former Horne Mine that was operated by Noranda from 1927 to 1976 and produced 11.6 million ounces of gold and 2.5 billion pounds of copper. Osisko Gold Royalties is the largest shareholder of the Corporation and currently owns 14.2% of the outstanding shares of the Corporation. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release. This news release contains forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (together, "forward-looking statements") within the meaning of applicable securities laws and the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. Generally, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of terminology such as "plans", "expects", "estimates", "intends", "anticipates", "believes" or variations of such words, or statements that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might", "will be taken", "occur" or "be achieved" and includes, without limitation, achievement of objectives set for the drilling program on the Horne 5 property and the regional exploration properties. Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results, performance, prospects and opportunities to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from these forward-looking statements include the reliability of the historical data referenced in this press release and those risks set out in Falco's public documents, including in each management discussion and analysis, filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. Although Falco believes that the assumptions and factors used in preparing the forward-looking statements are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on these statements, which only apply as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed times frames or at all. Except where required by applicable law, Falco disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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