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Cosgrave E.,Technology | Tryfonas T.,University of Bristol | Crick T.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
ICT for Sustainability 2014, ICT4S 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper explores whether it is useful to view the fundamental ideas behind the smart city concept through the lens of the 'Public Value Management' (PVM) paradigm. It investigates how appropriate ICT investment in cities might be articulated and valued through the concept of PVM. In order to achieve this, it explores the core concepts found in the PVM literature, and draws key connections to the smart city literature. This data is supported through semi-structured interviews with smart city experts. The aim is to understand the potential value of smart city concepts beyond simple optimisation of city processes and cost cutting. This paper concludes that there are conceptual connections between the PVM paradigm and the smart city. It argues that the types of projects adopted, and their success, are inseparable from the political paradigm within which they are undertaken. As such, it takes the view that adopting the PVM paradigm could support the successful delivery of smart cities, predominantly through the ability to understand value beyond the optimisation of systems. © 2014. The authors. Source


Challenges of Tier 4 foster development of new sealing and materials technologies designed to enhance engine efficiency, emissions performance. The addition of post-processing devices, which are essential to meeting the new requirements, can dramatically increase temperatures throughout the entire engine environment. Under the new rule, the elastomers must not only be temperature resistant, but also fuel and/ or oil resistant. To meet emissions reduction regulations, engine manufacturers must incorporate advanced sealing components, materials and technologies into their existing engine designs. If the parasitic energy losses can be reduced, the engine becomes more efficient and less fuel is needed to produce the same amount of power, and less fuel equals lower emissions. Source


Hertl E.,Technology | Knez S.,Flotation
Przeglad Papierniczy | Year: 2013

In the past few years, the process steps used in practice have remained largely the same in most paper mills using recycling fibers. At the same time, the demands made on the paper mills in terms of product efficiency (energy and fresh water consumption, ever increasing recycling fiber content in the furnish, etc.) have increased enormously. This presents a considerable challenge for further development and improvement of these traditional processes. In deinking plants in particular, there are two process steps that are of critical importance: pulping and flotation. First of all, the ANDRITZ FibreFlow drum pulper is compared with conventional pulping systems, highlighting the operational and quality advantages of this advanced system for recycled fiber. In deinking flotation, the demands of the markets for even better quality of deinking stock at lower operating costs were used as the basis for further development of the highly efficient ANDRITZ flotation concept - SelectaFlot. A broad selection of reference flotation plant installations from around the globe, utilizing a wide variety of recycled fiber furnishes and producing many different paper grades, showcase the global leadership position ANDRITZ enjoys in this market segment. Source


Tedesco G.,Health Technology Assessment and Safety Research Unit | Faggiano F.C.,Health Technology Assessment and Safety Research Unit | Leo E.,Health Technology Assessment and Safety Research Unit | Derrico P.,Technology | Ritrovato M.,Health Technology Assessment and Safety Research Unit
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques | Year: 2016

Background: Robotic surgery has been proposed as a minimally invasive surgical technique with advantages for both surgeons and patients, but is associated with high costs (installation, use and maintenance). The Health Technology Assessment Unit of the Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital sought to investigate the economic sustainability of robotic surgery, having foreseen its impact on the hospital budget Methods: Break-even and cost-minimization analyses were performed. A deterministic approach for sensitivity analysis was applied by varying the values of parameters between pre-defined ranges in different scenarios to see how the outcomes might differ. Results: The break-even analysis indicated that at least 349 annual interventions would need to be carried out to reach the break-even point. The cost-minimization analysis showed that robotic surgery was the most expensive procedure among the considered alternatives (in terms of the contribution margin). Conclusions: Robotic surgery is a good clinical alternative to laparoscopic and open surgery (for many pediatric operations). However, the costs of robotic procedures are higher than the equivalent laparoscopic and open surgical interventions. Therefore, in the short run, these findings do not seem to support the decision to introduce a robotic system in our hospital. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Priyadharshini S.,Technology | Meenambal T.,Government College of Technology, Coimbatore
Pollution Research | Year: 2014

According to United Nations report it is said that the volume of e-waste generated globally is set to exceed 40 million tonnes per year, End-of-life electrical and electronic waste or E-waste as its commonly known, is gaining importance due to their potential toxicity to the environment and human health. It is an irrefutable fact that Electrical and Electronic Equipments have become an integral part of human existence, due to technological advancements, improving economic status and extensive availability; it has become impossible to not be dependent on the comforts provided by the Electrical and Electronic Equipments, greater the dependence on the comforts provided by EEE greater is the volume of EEE that is going to be discarded, hence their management has become imperative. Governments in many countries are considering WEEE as priority waste stream due to the constant increase in volume and the many potential risks associated with their handling and disposal. The increased penetration of EEE is further said to add to the burden of solid waste management for governments. The components of EEE are complex and require specialised technology for their handling and management. The metallic fractions of the WEEE have received plenty of attention due to their recyclability and reuse, whereas the non-metallic components such as plastics, glass, rubber etc. have not received their due to their low economic value, the reason that could be attributed to their unscientific disposal. On one hand EEE have become indispensible part of life, consequently measures have to taken to control them in an environmentally sound manner. Generation of E-waste can be primarily attributed to three main reasons, namely, increasing market penetration, replacement market and high obsolescence rate. Hence it has become imperative that due consideration has to be given to the management of this particular form of potentially hazardous waste. Copyright © EM International. Source

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