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Salvadori A.,H. San Giuseppe | Fanari P.,H. San Giuseppe | Marzullo P.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Codecasa F.,H. San Giuseppe | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Purpose: It is demonstrated that aerobic exercise plays an important role in weight loss programs for obesity by increasing 24 h metabolic rate. While aerobic exercise can result in health and fitness benefits in obese subjects, also independently of weight loss, not completely clear are the effects of bouts of hard exercise on metabolic outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that short-term aerobic activity with anaerobic bouts might result in a greater improvement in the management of obesity than aerobic activity alone. Methods: We studied 16 obese subjects (eight men) during a progressive cycloergometric test up to exhaustion, before and after 4 weeks of two different training schedules (6 days/week). Insulin and glycaemia, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lactic acid were sampled. Group A (eight subjects, four men) performed an aerobic cycle workout; Group B (eight subjects, four men) performed a 25 min aerobic workout followed by 5 min of anaerobic workout. All the subjects maintained their individual eating habits. Results: The post-training test showed a decrease in AUCs NEFA in Group A (p < 0.05) and an increase in Group B (p < 0.05), together with an increase in lactic acid in Group A and a decrease in Group B (p < 0.01). β-cell function (HOMA2-B) revealed a reduction only in Group A (p < 0.05). Group B achieved a greatest reduction in body fat mass than Group A (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Aerobic plus anaerobic training seem to produce a greater response in lipid metabolism and not significant modifications in glucose indexes; then, in training prescription for obesity, we might suggest at starting weight loss program aerobic with short bouts of anaerobic training to reduce fat mass and subsequently a prolonged aerobic training alone to ameliorate the metabolic profile. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Salvadori A.,H. San Giuseppe | Fanari P.,H. San Giuseppe | Brunani A.,H. San Giuseppe | Marzullo P.,University of Piemonte Orientale | And 5 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2015

Leptin values are higher in obesity. Physical exercise reduces fat mass (FM) and decreases leptin levels. Intensity of physical training seems to play a role in reducing circulating leptin. In 16 obese subjects (8 men and 8 women, age 38.6±3.9 years, BMI 35.9±1.8 kg/m2), leptin was sampled before and after 4 weeks of controlled training. Eight subjects (4 men and 4 women) performed an aerobic training schedule (Group A), the remainders an aerobic training program with a bout of work beyond the anaerobic threshold (AT) (Group B). Training determined a reduction in leptin levels in both groups, which was significant in Group A (12.2 vs. 27.8μg/l, p<0.05), even when related to the change in FM (0.372 vs. 0.762 μg/l/kg, p<0.05). FM decreased significantly in Group B when compared to Group A (-7.4 vs. -2.6 kg, respectively, p<0.001). While in Group A the slight loss of FM was aggregated to a significant decrease in leptin levels, the opposite occurred in Group B. In Group A, leptin lowering was proportional to the amount of total work performed (p<0.001, R2=0.89). In obesity, a reduction is observed in leptin levels after short-term training, which is seemingly dissociated from concomitant decrease of FM. Aerobic training alone appears to be linked to a greater leptin reduction, which is well correlated with the amount of work performed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

Salvadori A.,H. San Giuseppe | Fanari P.,H. San Giuseppe | Marzullo P.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Codecasa F.,H. San Giuseppe | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Background Growth hormone (GH) secretion is normally sensitive to physical exercise. Intensity and duration of exercise, fitness and age can all influence the GH response to exercise. In obesity, GH secretion is decreased both in basal conditions and in response to exercise. Objective To analyse the dynamics of GH response to a progressive cycloergometric test, conducted up to exhaustion, in adult normal subjects and obese patients, after a reconditioning program at different workloads. Design and methods We studied eight lean subjects (four men, mean age 34·3 years, range 26-47 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 22·1 kg/m2). GH was sampled at baseline and during the last 30 s of each power output increase. Anaerobic threshold (AT) was detected by the V-slope method. The same test was carried out in 16 obese subjects (seven men, mean age 39·1 years, range 20-59 years, mean BMI 35·8 kg/m 2) and repeated after a 4-week reconditioning program consisting of aerobic workout (Group A, eight subjects, three men, mean age 40·5 years, range 22-59 years, mean BMI 33·6 kg/m2), and aerobic plus anaerobic work (group B, eight subjects, four men, mean age 37·6 years, range 20-56 years, mean BMI 38·0 kg/m2) for 6 days/week, with no dietary restrictions. Results Mean exercise peak occurred at higher intensity in controls (140 vs 110 W, P < 0·05), and AT exceeded at higher work outputs than in obese subjects (102 vs 74 W, P < 0·05). In controls, GH response to exercise was prompt and further sustained after AT; in obese subjects, GH increased slowly and insignificantly before AT, thereafter it increased to lower levels than in controls (P < 0·001). Following the reconditioning period, both Group A and Group B of obese subjects failed to improve exercise performance as well as GH response to exercise before AT; beyond AT, a greater GH response to exercise occurred in Group B than Group A (7·59 ± 0·32 μg/l at peak of exercise) with significantly different Delta AUCs (Area Under the Curves) following AT: 30·5 ± 12 μg.min/l in Group A vs 124·2 ± 38 μg.min/l in Group B, P < 0·05. Conclusions Our results confirm the blunted GH response to exercise in obese adults when compared to lean counterparts. With obesity, aerobic training poorly increases the GH response beyond AT, while supplemental anaerobic workload appears to increase GH response beyond AT. These observations may have implications for the prescription of physical exercise, which is one of the recommendations in the management of obesity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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