Gerontologie et Societe | Year: 2012
Older people's mobility is one of the key factors in preventing dependence. Within this context it is therefore essential to envisage the whole range of measures allowing mobility to be maintained. The article refers to different means of transport and the difficulties arising with advancing years. This rapid survey points to several possible paths to follow. © Fond. Nationale de Gérontologie.
Raymondos K.,Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine |
Molitoris U.,Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine |
Capewell M.,Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine |
Sander B.,Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine |
And 5 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2012
Introduction: Recent experimental data suggest that continuous external negative-pressure ventilation (CENPV) results in better oxygenation and less lung injury than continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV). The effects of CENPV on patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain unknown.Methods: We compared 2 h CENPV in a tankrespirator ("iron lung") with 2 h CPPV. The six intubated patients developed ARDS after pulmonary thrombectomy (n = 1), aspiration (n = 3), sepsis (n = 1) or both (n = 1). We used a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg predicted body weight and matched lung volumes at end expiration. Haemodynamics were assessed using the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) system, and pressure measurements were referenced to atmospheric pressure.Results: CENPV resulted in better oxygenation compared to CPPV (median ratio of arterial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen of 345 mmHg (minimum-maximum 183 to 438 mmHg) vs 256 mmHg (minimum-maximum 123 to 419 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Tank pressures were -32.5 cmH 2O (minimum-maximum -30 to -43) at end inspiration and -15 cmH 2O (minimum-maximum -15 to -19 cmH 2O) at end expiration. NO Inspiratory transpulmonary pressures decreased (P = 0.04) and airway pressures were considerably lower at inspiration (-1.5 cmH 2O (minimum-maximum -3 to 0 cmH 2O) vs 34.5 cmH 2O (minimum-maximum 30 to 47 cmH 2O), P = 0.03) and expiration (4.5 cmH 2O (minimum-maximum 2 to 5) vs 16 cmH 2O (minimum-maximum 16 to 23), P =0.03). During CENPV, intraabdominal pressures decreased from 20.5 mmHg (12 to 30 mmHg) to 1 mmHg (minimum-maximum -7 to 5 mmHg) (P = 0.03). Arterial pressures decreased by approximately 10 mmHg and central venous pressures by 18 mmHg. Intrathoracic blood volume indices and cardiac indices increased at the initiation of CENPV by 15% and 20% (P < 0.05), respectively. Heart rate and extravascular lung water indices remained unchanged.Conclusions: CENPV with a tank respirator improved gas exchange in patients with ARDS at lower transpulmonary, airway and intraabdominal pressures and, at least initially improving haemodynamics. Our observations encourage the consideration of further studies on the physiological effects and the clinical effectiveness of CENPV in patients with ARDS. © 2012 Raymondos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Christopoulou G.,General |
Sismani C.,The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics |
Sakellariou M.,Athens Center |
Saklamaki M.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit |
And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2013
Microduplications of 22q11.2 have been recently characterized as a new genomic duplication syndrome showing an extremely variable phenotype ranging from normal or mild learning disability to multiple congenital defects and sharing some overlapping features with DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS). We report on the prenatal diagnosis of a 22q11.2 microduplication in a fetus with normal development that was referred for chromosomal analysis at 17. weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Pregnancy was the result of an IVF-ICSI attempt after 4. years of infertility, mainly due to severe oligoasthenoteratospermia of the father. Amniocentesis was undertaken and cytogenetic analysis revealed an apparently normal male karyotype. Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) revealed a microduplication in the 22q11.2 chromosome region. Parental analysis showed that the 22q11.2 microduplication has been inherited from the otherwise healthy mother. Analysis with high resolution array-CGH showed that the size of the microduplication is 2.5. Mb and revealed the genes that are duplicated, including the TBX1 gene. The parents elected to continue with the pregnancy and the infant is now five months old and shows normal development. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Strucker B.,General |
Stockmann M.,General |
Denecke T.,Charite Campus Virchow |
Neuhaus P.,General |
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013
Background: Improved surgical techniques, substantial preoperative diagnostics, and advanced perioperative management permit extensive and complex liver resection. Thus, hepatic malignancies that would have been considered inoperable some years ago may be curatively resected today. Despite all this progress, biliary leakage remains a clinically relevant issue, especially after extended liver resection. Intraoperative decompression of bile ducts by means of distinct biliary drains is controversial. Although drainage is rarely used as a routine procedure, it might be useful in selected patients at high risk for biliary leakage. Methods: We describe surgical management of long-segment exposed or injured bile ducts after extended parenchymal resection with concomitant lymphadenectomy. Because blood supply to the bile duct may be impaired, the risk of biliary necrosis and/or leakage is significant. Internal splinting of the bile duct to ensure optimum decompression plus guidance might be helpful. Thus, in selected cases after trisectionectomy we inserted an external-internal or internal-external drain into long-segment exposed bile ducts. For internal-external drains the tube was diverted via the major duodenal papilla into the duodenum and then transfixed after the duodenojejunal flexure through the jejunal wall by means of a Witzel's channel. Results: Because the entire bile duct is splinted, this technique is superior to bile duct decompression with a T-tube. This is supported by the course of a patient suffering biliary leakage after extended right-sided hepatectomy for colorectal metastasis. Initially, a T-tube was inserted for decompression, but biliary leakage persisted. After inserting transhepatic external-internal drainage, bile leakage stopped immediately. The patient's course was then uneventful. Five other patients (mostly with locally advanced hepatocellular or cholangiocellular carcinoma) treated similarly were discharged without complications. Drain removal 6 weeks postoperatively was uncomplicated in five of the 6 patients. In the sixth patient, external-internal drainage was replaced by a Yamakawa-type prosthesis for a biliary stricture. None of the patients suffered severe complications during long-term follow-up. Conclusions: The bile duct drainage technique presented in this study was useful for preventing and treating bile leakage after long-segment exposure of extrahepatic bile ducts during major hepatectomy. Transhepatic or internal-external drains are often used for bilioenteric anastomoses, but similar drainage techniques have not been reported for the native bile duct. T-tubes are generally used in this situation. In particular cases, however, inner splinting of the bile duct and appropriate movement of the bile via a tube can be helpful. © 2013 Socié té Internationale de Chirurgie.
Boccardi V.,University of Perugia |
Ruggiero C.,University of Perugia |
Patriti A.,General |
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2016
A growing concern in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is dysphagia, or swallowing impairment, which leads to malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, functional decline and fear of eating and drinking, as well as a decrease in the quality of life. Thus the diagnostic assessment of dysphagia in patients with AD is imperative to ensure that they receive effective management, avoiding complications, and reducing comorbidity and mortality in such a growing population. Dysphagia management requires a multidisciplinary approach considering that no single strategy is appropriate for all patients. However, evidence for clinical diagnostic assessment, interventions, and medical management of dysphagia in these patients are still limited: few studies are reporting the evaluation and the management among this group of patients. Here we analyzed the most recent findings in diagnostic assessment and management of swallowing impairment in patients affected by AD. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.