Banerjee S.,Gynaecology Unit |
Kaye S.,Institute of Cancer Research
Current Oncology Reports | Year: 2011
Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are showing considerable promise for the treatment of BRCA mutation-associated ovarian and breast cancer. This approach exploits a synthetic lethal strategy to target the specific DNA repair pathway in cancers that harbor mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Accumulating evidence suggests that PARP inhibitors may have a wider application in the treatment of sporadic, high-grade serous ovarian cancers and other cancers including endometrial cancer. In this review, we discuss the clinical development of PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer and explore challenges that need to be addressed if the full potential of these agents is to be realized. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Symonds R.P.,University of Leicester |
Gourley C.,University of Edinburgh |
Davidson S.,The Christie NHS Foundation Trust |
Carty K.,University of Glasgow |
And 14 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015
Background: Patients treated with standard chemotherapy for metastatic or relapsed cervical cancer respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy (response achieved in 20-30% of patients) with an overall survival of less than 1 year. High tumour angiogenesis and high concentrations of intratumoural VEGF are adverse prognostic features. Cediranib is a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR1, 2, and 3. In this trial, we aimed to assess the effect of the addition of cediranib to carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer. Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, which was done in 17 UK cancer treatment centres, patients aged 18 years or older initially diagnosed with metastatic carcinoma or who subsequently developed metastatic disease or local pelvic recurrence after radical treatment that was not amenable to exenterative surgery were recruited. Eligible patients received carboplatin AUC of 5 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 by infusion every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles and were randomised centrally (1:1) through a minimisation approach to receive cediranib 20 mg or placebo orally once daily until disease progression. The stratification factors were disease site, disease-free survival after primary therapy or primary stage IVb disease, number of lines of previous treatment, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and investigational site. All patients, investigators, and trial personnel were masked to study drug allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat, and the safety analysis included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with the ISCRTN registry, number ISRCTN23516549, and has been completed. Findings: Between Aug 19, 2010, and July 27, 2012, 69 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to cediranib (n=34) or placebo (n=35). After a median follow-up of 24·2 months (IQR 21·9-29·5), progression-free survival was longer in the cediranib group (median 8·1 months [80% CI 7·4-8·8]) than in the placebo group (6·7 months [6·2-7·2]), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·58 (80% CI 0·40-0·85; one-sided p=0·032). Grade 3 or worse adverse events that occurred in the concurrent chemotherapy and trial drug period in more than 10% of patients were diarrhoea (five [16%] of 32 patients in the cediranib group vs one [3%] of 35 patients in the placebo group), fatigue (four [13%] vs two [6%]), leucopenia (five [16%] vs three [9%]), neutropenia (10 [31%] vs four [11%]), and febrile neutropenia (five [16%] vs none). The incidence of grade 2-3 hypertension was higher in the cediranib group than in the control group (11 [34%] vs four [11%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 18 patients in the placebo group and 19 patients in the cediranib group. Interpretation: Cediranib has significant efficacy when added to carboplatin and paclitaxel in the treatment of metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer. This finding was accompanied by an increase in toxic effects (mainly diarrhoea, hypertension, and febrile neutropenia). Funding: Cancer Research UK and AstraZeneca. © 2015 Symonds et al.
Vicariotto F.,Gynaecology Unit |
Del Piano M.,Gastroenterology Unit |
Mogna L.,Biolab Research Srl |
Mogna G.,Probiotical SpA
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND:: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis, and it is diagnosed in up to 40% of women with vaginal complaints in the primary care setting. Among Candida spp., Candida albicans is the most common infectious agent. The treatment of choice for uncomplicated VVC is achieved with single-dose or short-course therapy in over 90% of cases. Several topical and oral drugs are available, without evidence for superiority of any agent or route of administration. In any case, most classic treatments are unable to significantly offer a protection against possible recurrences. In recent years, probiotics are emerging as a new strategy to counteract VVC. In fact, they are well known for their ability to lower intravaginal pH, thus establishing a barrier effect against many types of yeasts. Some strains are also able to exert additional and more focused antagonistic activities mediated by specific molecules such as hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. For example, Lactobacillus fermentum LF5 (CNCM I-789) was successfully tested in 4 human trials involving a total of 340 women reporting VVC at enrollment. In any case, the way used to deliver probiotics to the vaginal environment represents a crucial point. The aim of this work was to first select 1 or more probiotic strains in vitro with an antagonistic activity on Candida yeasts and then to perform an in vivo human pilot study using an association of the most promising and active bacteria. METHODS:: For this purpose, 2 probiotic strains Probiotical S.p.A (Italy) were selected based on their strong in vitro inhibition activity toward 4 particular Candida species, namely C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei and subsequently tested in a human intervention pilot trial involving 30 women with VVC. The probiotics used, L. fermentum LF10 (DSM 19187) and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 (DSM 21717), were administered by means of slow release effervescent vaginal tablets (ActiCand 30 product). The main endpoint was the assessment of the establishment and maintenance of a barrier effect against Candida yeasts in women suffering from VVC. Thirty female subjects who were diagnosed with VVC by both microscopic examination and yeast culture were enrolled in the study and directed to apply a vaginal tablet once a day for 7 consecutive nights, followed by 1 tablet every 3 nights for a further 3-week application (acute phase) and, finally, 1 tablet per week to maintain a long-term vaginal colonization against possible recurrences. A medical examination of each patient was performed at enrollment (d0), at the end of the first 4 weeks of treatment (d28), and at the end of the second month of relapse prevention (d56). The visual and microscopic examination was always accompanied by microbiological analyses of vaginal swabs to assess the presence of Candida. A statistical comparison was made between d28, or d56, and d0, and between d56 and d28 to quantify the efficacy against possible recurrences. RESULTS:: The administration of the product ActiCand 30 was able to significantly solve Candida yeast symptoms after 28 days in 26 patients out of 30 (corresponding to 86.6%, P<0.001). At the end of the second month, recurrences were recorded, albeit not particularly serious, in only 3 out of 26 patients (11.5%, P=0.083) who were found to have fully healed at the end of the first month of treatment. This is a further confirmation of the long-term barrier effect exerted by the product. CONCLUSIONS:: VVC has a very high incidence as 70% to 75% of women report at least 1 episode during the life. Many treatments are currently available but, despite a relatively high effectiveness in the relief of symptoms typically associated with acute infections, they are generally unable to offer a long-term protective barrier against possible recurrences. This study demonstrated the ability of ActiCand 30 to not only solve Candida infections in a very high percentage of women, but also to exert a long-term physiological defense due to the colonization of vaginal microbiota and adhesion of the mucosa to the epithelial cells. The special formulation of ActiCand 30, consisting of slow release effervescent vaginal tablets, is able to mediate 2 types of barrier effects, the first represented by the formation of an anaerobic environment due to the release of CO2 and the second guaranteed by the colonization and adhesion to the vaginal epithelium of the 2 probiotics L. fermentum LF10 and L. acidophilus LA02. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lopez J.,Gynaecology Unit |
Banerjee S.,Gynaecology Unit |
Kaye S.B.,Gynaecology Unit |
Kaye S.B.,Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Trust
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013
Over the past 40 years, the treatment of ovarian cancer has undoubtedly improved as a result of better multi-modality care and platinum-based chemotherapy. More recently, the introduction of anti-angiogenic therapy, PARP inhibitors and a weekly regimen for paclitaxel indicate that results are likely to improve further. However, major challenges remain and these will be reviewed in this article. We assess key issues in anti-angiogenic treatment including potential ways for addressing resistance; we review the current studies of PARP inhibitor treatment, which shows most promise in patients with germline BRCA mutations; we describe the potential for folate-receptor-directed therapy, given the high level of FR expression in ovarian cancer and we highlight the potential for molecular targeted therapy, focusing on specific subgroups of the disease with targets such as the PI3 K/AKT and RAS/RAF/MEK pathways and the ErbB family of oncogenes. We anticipate that progress will accelerate with a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the various subtypes of ovarian cancer, leading to an increasingly personalized approach to treating women with this disease. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Banerjee S.,Gynaecology Unit |
Gore M.,Gynaecology Unit
Cancer Imaging | Year: 2012
Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynaecological cancer. Advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic strategies have led to improvements in outcome. However, the majority of women present with advanced disease with little prospect for cure. In this article, we summarize the systemic management and ovarian cancer and raise a number of important issues: namely the timing of systemic therapy in relation to surgery, the selection of patients who do not require systemic therapy and the development of novel agents. © 2012 International Cancer Imaging Society.