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Chagas B.S.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Batista M.V.D.A.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Crovella S.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Gurgel A.P.A.D.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

HPV-31 has been widely described as an important oncogenic type, showing high incidence in worldwide and especially in Northeastern Brazil. We sought to identify the presence of specific mutations in HPV-31 E6 and E7 oncogenes in women with abnormal cervical smear. We enrolled 150 gynecological patients from Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil. HPV screening was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (MY09/11). E6 and E7 oncogenes were amplified with specific primers and sequenced. The sequences obtained were aligned with the GenBank reference sequences in order to search for genetic variants. We identified genetic variants in E6 and E7 sequences from HPV-31. Two new nucleotide changes in E6 and E7 were described for the first time in this study. A novel mutation in E6 resulted in amino acid change in a site belonging to T-cell epitope with MHC II binding activity. There was no significant difference in the distribution of HPV-31 E6 and E7 variants when compared to all selected clinical/epidemiological characteristics. HPV-31 isolates have been clustered into three main groups called lineages A, B and C. We describe new HPV-31 variants in Brazil, contributing to better understand the genomic diversity of these viruses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gurgel A.P.A.D.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Chagas B.S.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Amaral C.M.M.D.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Albuquerque E.M.B.,University Hospital Oswaldo Cruz | And 4 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and genetic variability of the capsid L1 gene of rare HPV genotypes that were found in the cervical lesions of women from North-East Brazil. A total number of 263 patients were included in this study. HPV detection was performed using PCR followed by direct sequencing of MY09/11, as well as type-specific PCR to detect the Alpha-9 species. Epitope prediction was performed to determine whether or not the genetic variants are inserted in B-cell and T-cell epitopes. The prevalence of rare HPV types in cervical lesions was found to be 9.47%. The rare HPV genotypes that were detected were HPV-53, 54, 56, 61, 62, 66, 70, and 81. The genetic variability in the L1 gene of rare HPV types involved thirty nucleotide changes, eight of which were detected for the first time in this study. Moreover, some of these variants are embedded in B-cell or T-cell epitope regions. The results of this research suggest that rare HPV types might be involved in cervical lesions and some of these variants can be found in B-cell and T-cell epitopes. Data on the prevalence and variability of rare HPV types will assist in clarifying the role of these viruses in carcinogenesis. © 2013 Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz Gurgel et al.

Nobbenhuis M.A.E.,Gynaecological Unit | Lalondrelle S.,Gynaecological Unit | Lalondrelle S.,Melanoma Unit | Larkin J.,Melanoma Unit | Banerjee S.,Gynaecological Unit
Current Opinion in Oncology | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary melanomas originating from the gynaecological tract are rare and aggressive cancers. The 5-year survival is around 10%. The majority of tumours differ from cutaneous melanomas, which arise from the skin, by developing from melanocytes located in mucosal epithelium. The clinical behaviour, prognosis and the biology of mucosal melanomas are distinct from cutaneous melanomas. In this article, we summarize the current management of melanomas of the gynaecological tract (vulva, vagina, ovary and cervix) and discuss the progress in developing new treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The management of mucosal melanomas has not changed substantially over the last decade and the prognosis remains poor. Surgery remains the primary treatment of choice in all localized melanomas of the genital tract. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are options but have limited success for the majority of women. Activation of c-KIT occurs in vulvar melanomas. Clinical trials of targeted agents are underway. SUMMARY: As a result of the rarity of gynaecological tract melanomas, challenges associated with their anatomical locations and resistance to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, this group of conditions remain difficult to treat and continue to have a poor prognosis. A greater understanding of the molecular profile of these cancers may provide promising targeted approaches. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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