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Kang J.H.,Biotechnology Research Division | Lee J.M.,Gyeongsangnam do Fisheries Resources Research Institute | Noh E.S.,Biotechnology Research Division | Park J.Y.,Biotechnology Research Division | An C.M.,Biotechnology Research Division
Genetics and Molecular Research

Korean (hard-shelled) mussels (Mytilus coruscus) are an economically important endemic marine bivalve mollusk of Korea; yet, the population has rapidly declined because of overharvesting and habitat competition from the invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis species. The population structures of M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis were analyzed by next-generation sequencing using 5 microsatellite markers specifically developed for M. coruscus. M. galloprovincialis had an average of 5.4 alleles per locus (range = 2-10), with an average allelic richness of 4.9 per locus (range = 2.0-9.3). M. coruscus had an average of 5.7 alleles per locus (range = 2-13), with an average allelic richness of 5.2 per locus (range = 2.0-11.9). Excessive homozygosity was observed at 3 loci, which was assumed to be due to the presence of null alleles at these loci. Pairwise multilocus FST estimates showed that the M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis populations were clearly separated. Six populations of M. galloprovincialis from the western, eastern, and southern coast of Korea formed 2 separate clusters, indicating that more than 2 populations of M. galloprovincialis have been introduced to the Korean Peninsula. Hybrids between M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis were not identified, probably because of genetic differences or different habitat preferences. Further genetic information is required to perform selective breeding, population management, and restoration of M. coruscus. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

Haque N.,Gyeongsang National University | Cho D.,Soonchunhyang University | Mee L.J.,Gyeongsangnam do Fisheries Resources Research Institute | Su L.D.,POSCO | Kwon S.,Gyeongsang National University
Environmental Engineering Research

Macro fouling due to blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) has affected negatively on the operation efficiency and eventual system failure of offshore structures and coastal power stations. A certain range of chlorine (0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mg/L) was applied on the mussel larvae to identify the survival rate with respect to various exposure times under laboratory condition. The ciliary movement of the larvae was used to check their survival. The 1.0 mg/L of chlorine shows to 97% of larvae mortality whereas 0.7 mg/L of chlorine shows only 16% of larvae mortality. Minimum exposure times for 100% larvae mortality ranged from 300 to 20 min for increasing concentrations of chlorine (0.05~1.0 mg/L). It was found that 1 mg/L of chlorine was 4 times more efficient than 0.7 mg/L of that, and 15 times more than 0.05 mg/L of chlorine dose. Data collected and analyzed here will help plant operators to optimize chlorine dosage and its scheduling. © 2014 Korean Society of Environmental Engineers. Source

Kang J.-H.,Biotechnology Research Division | Lim H.J.,Biotechnology Research Division | Lim H.J.,West Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Kang H.-S.,Biotechnology Research Division | And 6 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

The triploid Pacific oyster, which is produced by mating tetraploid and diploid oysters, is favored by the aquaculture industry because of its better flavor and firmer texture, particularly during the summer. However, tetraploid oyster production is not feasible in all oysters; the development of tetraploid oysters is ongoing in some oyster species. Thus, a method for ploidy verification is necessary for this endeavor, in addition to ploidy verification in aquaculture farms and in the natural environment. In this study, a method for ploidy verification of triploid and diploid oysters was developed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panels containing primers for molecular microsatellite markers. Two microsatellite multiplex PCR panels consisting of three markers each were developed using previously developed microsatellite markers that were optimized for performance. Both panels were able to verify the ploidy levels of 30 triploid oysters with 100% accuracy, illustrating the utility of microsatellite markers as a tool for verifying the ploidy of individual oysters. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source

Kang J.-H.,Biotechnology Research Division | Kang H.-S.,Biotechnology Research Division | Lee J.-M.,Gyeongsangnam do Fisheries Resources Research Institute | An C.-M.,Biotechnology Research Division | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

The objectives of this study were to investigate color patterns of shell and mantle edge pigmentation of a Pacific oyster, C. gigas, and to estimate variance components of the two colors. A sample of 240 F0 oysters was collected from six aquaculture farms in Tongyeong, Korea to measure shell color and mantle edge pigmentation. Among the F0s, male and female individuals with black (white) shell and black (white) mantle edge were selected and mated to generate three F1 full-sib black (white) cross families (N = 265). Two and four F2 cross families (N = 286) were also produced from black and white F1 selected individuals, respectively. Variance component estimates due to residuals and families within color were obtained using SAS PROC VARCOMP procedures to estimate heritability of shell and mantle edge pigmentation. In the F0 generation, about 29% (11%) had black (white) color for both shell and mantle edge. However, in the F1 and F2 black (white) cross families, 75% (67%) and 100% (100%) of oysters had black (white) shell colors, and 59% (23%) and 79% (55%) had black (white) mantle edge, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients between shell and mantle edge color were 0.25, 0.74, and 0.92 in F0, F1, and F 2 generations, respectively, indicating that, with generations of selection process, an individual with black (white) shell color is more likely to have black (white) mantle edge pigmentation. This suggests that shell color could be a good indicator trait for mantle edge pigmentation if selection of both the colors is implemented for a couple of generations. Estimates of heritability were 0.41 and 0.77 for shell color and 0.27 and 0.08 for mantle edge pigmentation in the F1 and F2 generations, respectively, indicating that, in general, significant proportions of phenotypic variations for the shell and mantle edge colors are explained by genetic variations between individuals. These results suggest that the two color traits are inheritable and correlated, enabling effective selection on shell and mantle edge color. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source

Kang J.-H.,Biotechnology Research Division | Kim B.-H.,Southwest Research Institute | Park J.-Y.,Biotechnology Research Division | Lee J.-M.,Gyeongsangnam do Fisheries Resources Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences

The Asian hard clam, Meretrix petechialis, is an economically important bivalve, but its catch and population sizes are decreasing rapidly, owing to many factors, including large-scale reclamation of its natural habitat on the western coast of the Korean peninsula. Attempts to restore the resources and production of this species require genetic structure and diversity information. In this study, we developed 15 microsatellite markers from a partial genomic library enriched in GT repeats. Nine of these markers were polymorphic, with an average allele number of six, and six were monomorphic in 95 tested individuals. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci (p > 0.05), and deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test showing excess of heterozygotes was observed in only one of nine loci. In addition, no null alleles or genetic differentiation between two tested populations were detected. A cross-species amplification in 12 species of four families resulted in two M. petechialis-specific loci and three possible universal markers. This information will be useful in the future development of high-quality artificial seedlings and sustainable resource management. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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