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Lee H.,Gyeongsang National University | Kang C.,Gyeongsang National University | Yoo Y.-S.,Gyeongsang National University | Hah D.-Y.,Gyeongnam Livestock Promotion Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Zearalenone (ZEN) has been implicated in several cases of mycotoxicosis in farm animals and humans. The toxic effects of ZEN have been well characterized, but little is known regarding the mechanisms of ZEN toxicity, including the involvement of the oxidative stress pathway. Using Chang liver cells as a model, the aim of this study was to determine if ZEN could elevate the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp 70, induce cytotoxicity and modulate the levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). In addition, the cytoprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) pre-treatment were assessed. Finally, the involvement of oxidative stress in ZEN-induced toxicity was confirmed.The results of this study demonstrated that ZEN-induced Hsp 70 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manners. This effect occurred at low-ZEN concentrations, and could therefore be considered a biomarker of ZEN-induced toxicity. The cytotoxicity was reduced when Chang liver cells were exposed to sub-lethal heat shock prior to ZEN treatment, demonstrating a cytoprotective effect of Hsp 70. This cytoprotective effect suggested that Hsp 70 might play a key role in the cellular defense mechanism. When cells were pre-treated with NACA prior to ZEN treatment, the cells were also protected from toxicity. This NACA cytoprotective effect suggested the involvement of oxidative stress in ZEN-induced toxicity, and this mechanism was supported by reduced Hsp 70 expression, inhibited cytolethality, increased GSH levels and decreased TBARS formation when cells were pre-treated with NACA prior to ZEN exposure.Our data clearly demonstrated that ZEN induced cytotoxicity in Chang liver cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing GSH levels and increasing TBARS formation in a dose-dependent manner. ZEN also, induced Hsp 70 expression, and the side effects of ZEN were significantly alleviated by pre-treatment with NACA. Oxidative stress is likely to be one of the primary pathways of ZEN toxicity. This oxidative stress may contribute, at least in part, to the mechanism of ZEN-induced cytotoxicity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Jung E.-Y.,Gyeongsang National University | Yun I.-R.,Gyeongnam Livestock Promotion Research Institute | Go G.-W.,Yale University | Kim G.-D.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Pork sausage batter without antioxidants (control), added 0.02% BHA/BHT, added 1% radix puerariae (RP), added 2% RP, and added 4% RP were cooked and stored for 28days at 4°C. Pork sausage added with BHA/BHT and RP had higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. The added RP and BHA/BHT pork sausages had lower pH values than the control after 14d. Results showed that lightness decreased upon the addition of RP. Cooking loss was lower for the added RP samples compared to the control at 14d. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) values decreased in the added RP sausage compared to the control. Especially, 1% RP was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared to the other added RP treatments. Our results suggest that precooked pork sausage with RP can enhance eating quality, as sensory panels found that sausage added with RP had better color and texture. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lee S.-L.,Gyeongsang National University | Kang E.-J.,Gyeongsang National University | Maeng G.-H.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim M.-J.,Gyeongsang National University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2010

The present study compared the developmental ability of miniature pig embryos cloned with fetal fibroblasts (FFs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and differentiated (osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes) MSCs. MSCs were isolated from an approximately 1-month-old female miniature pig (T-type, PWG Micro-pig®, PWG Genetics Korea). MSCs were differentiated into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes under controlled conditions and characterized by cell surface antigen profile using specific markers. These differentiated or undifferentiated MSCs, as well as FFs of miniature pig, were transferred into enucleated oocytes of domestic pigs. Data from 10 replicates involving 1567 cloned embryos were assessed in terms of developmental rates. The in vitro development rate to the blastocyst stage of embryos cloned with undifferentiated MSCs was significantly (P<0. 05) higher than that of embryos cloned with differentiated MSCs and FFs. Surgical transfer of 523 two-cell stage embryos cloned with undifferentiated MSCs into five synchronized domestic pig recipients resulted in 5 cloned miniature pig offspring (1 stillborn and 4 viable) from 2 pregnant recipients. The results imply that MSCs might be multipotent and that they can be used to produce viable cloned miniature pigs that cannot be easily reproduced with differentiated somatic cells. © 2010 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

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