Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services

Chinju, South Korea

Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services

Chinju, South Korea
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Kim G.D.,Chonnam National University | Kim G.D.,Bohea Brewery Co. | Lee Y.S.,Jeonnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Cho J.-Y.,Chonnam National University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical compositions and antioxidative activities of hot pepper fruits cultivated with strict management by organic and conventional agricultural practices. The ascorbic acid content in the organically grown hot pepper (OGP) was significantly higher than that of conventionally grown hot pepper (CGP) in both green and red fruits. The content of other bioactive compounds such as flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin) and total phenolics in OGP was typically higher than in CGP regardless of fruit color. In addition, the ABTS+ radical-scavenging activity of OGP red fruits was significantly higher than that of CGP red fruits. Moreover, regardless of the color of the fruits, a higher antioxidative activity was observed in blood plasma from rats administered the OGP fruit extracts than in blood plasma from rats administered the CGP fruit extracts. It was hypothesized that the higher antioxidant activity of the OGP fruits may have resulted from the higher antioxidant content in the OGP fruits. These results suggest that consumption of pepper fruits may increase antioxidant activity in the blood, and OGP fruits may be more effective in increasing this antioxidant activity than CGP fruits. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Choi S.-T.,Sweet Persimmon Research Institute | Kang S.-M.,Gyeongsang National University | Park D.-S.,Sweet Persimmon Research Institute | Hong K.-P.,Sweet Persimmon Research Institute | Rho C.-W.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Responses of pot-grown persimmon trees (Diospyros kaki cv. 'Fuyu') with two different leaf/fruit (L/F) ratios and three different fertigation levels were studied. On July 2, the L/F ratios of 4-year-old trees were adjusted to 20 and 10 by fruit thinning. From July 4 to August 26, each pot was fertigated with a solution containing 0-0. g (none), 10-8. g (medium), or 20-16. g (high) of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K), respectively. The L/F ratio of 10 resulted in higher yields but smaller fruits containing lower soluble solids than the ratio of 20. The non-fertigated trees with the L/F ratio of 10 produced the smallest fruits, but the medium fertigation increased the size of the fruit at this ratio. The high fertigation level decreased fruit skin color at both ratios. Fruit dry weight increased the most among the tree components, accounting for 48-57% of the tree total dry weight at the L/F ratio of 20 and for 64-72% at the ratio of 10. The increase in tree total dry weight at the ratio of 10 was greater than that at the ratio of 20. The trees receiving medium fertigation had higher tree total dry weights than those receiving high fertigation, especially at the ratio of 10. As the L/F ratio changed to 10 from 20, the percentages of N and K partitioned to fruits in the non-fertigated trees increased from 38% to 51% and from 67% to 96%, respectively, of the tree total N and K increases; the percentage decreased with increasing fertigation level. Although fertigation significantly increased total N and K contents of the tree, the increase in K at the ratio of 10 was less in high fertigation rather than in the medium level. The results indicated that adjusting supplemental N and K was necessary to ensure fruit growth and N and K accumulation for trees with high fruit loads, but high levels of fertigation are not necessarily preferable. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Song J.Y.,Gyeongsang National University | Sivanesan I.,Gyeongsang National University | An C.G.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Jeong B.R.,Gyeongsang National University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

A simple and efficient protocol was developed for in vitro propagation of two miniature paprika cultivars. Seeds of miniature paprika (Capsicum annuum) 'Hivita Red' and 'Hivita Yellow' were decontaminated and placed in a petri dish containing a half-strength MS medium and then were incubated in the dark for 7 10 days for germination. Leaf explants excised from one month-old aseptic seedlings were cultured on a MS medium supplemented with TDZ (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mgL -1) alone or in a combination with NAA (0.1 or 0.01 mgL -1) for four weeks. The highest number of regenerated shoot buds was obtained when leaf explants were cultured on a MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL -1 TDZ and 0.1 mgL -1 NAA with an average shoots per explant of 8.0 in 'Hivita Red' and 5.6 in 'Hivita Yellow'. Regenerated shoot buds were separated and transferred onto a MS medium without growth regulators for shoot growth and rooting. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized in a greenhouse and cultivated for three months. After about two months, they started to produce flowers and continuously produced fruits. Morphology and fruit shape of regenerated plants were normal and plants set seeds as the same as to the seed-raised plants. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Xia C.,Pusan National University | Xia C.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Lee J.-M.,Pusan National University | Li Y.,Pusan National University | And 3 more authors.
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2013

We propose an in situ detection method of multiple leaves with overlapping and occlusion in greenhouse conditions. Initially a multilayer perceptron (MLP) is used to classify partial boundary images of pepper leaves. After the partial leaf boundary detection, active shape models (ASMs) are subsequently built to employ the images of entire leaves based on a priori knowledge using landmark. Two deformable models were developed with pepper leaves: Boundary-ASM and MLP-ASM. Matching processes are carried out by deforming the trained leaf models to fit real leaf images collected in the greenhouse. MLP-ASM detected 76.7 and 87.8% of overlapping and occluded pepper leaves respectively, while Boundary-ASM showed detection rates of 63.4 and 76.7%. The detection rates by the conventional ASM were 23.3 and 29.3%. The leaf models trained with pepper leaves were further tested with leaves of paprika, in the same family but with more complex shapes (e.g., holes and rolling). Although the overall detection rates were somewhat lower than those for pepper, the rates for the occluded and overlapping leaves of paprika were still higher with MLP-ASM (ranging from 60.4 to 76.7%) and Boundary-ASM (ranging from 50.5 to 63.3%) than using the conventional active shape model (from 21.6 to 30.0%). The modified active shape models with the boundary classifier could be an efficient means for detecting multiple leaves in field conditions. © 2013 IAgrE.

Lee K.M.,Gyeongsang National University | Lee K.M.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Lim C.S.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Muneer S.,Gyeongsang National University | Jeong B.R.,Gyeongsang National University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

In the present study, the functions of vascular connections (graft unions) in the grafted tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Super Doterang grafted on cv. B-Blocking) has been monitored with some indicating factors such as transpiration, water uptake rate, sugar content, flower dye distributions between scion and rootstock, and hardness of the grafted unions. In addition, various light qualities have been tested to evaluate the effects on functions of vascular connections particularly on xylem and phloem. Our results depicted that light had a positive effect on the development of grafted unions as well as their functions. The functions of stomata and vascular connections developed approximately 50% particularly in the first five days function monitoring. Moreover, the reduction of sugar content in the scion parts was inhibited instead of the dark condition. The use of the pure red and blue light sources in the acclimating chamber showed difficulties to keep the water balance of the grafted seedlings and the sudden abiotic stress condition (high light intensity) was observed. At day 4 after grafting, the gap between transpirational water loss and water uptake in the FL (fluorescent light) and LEDW1R2B1 (light emitting diode white/red/blue) supplying treatment was found to be the smallest, the gap. Our results therefore indicated that light sources from light emitting diodes (LEDs) combined with wave lengths might be beneficial contributions for developing vascular bundles and stomatal behaviors of the grafted seedlings during the wound healing period. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Hwang J.,Pusan National University | Oh J.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Kim Z.,Gyeongsang National University | Staub J.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2014

Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A study was designed to determine the genetics of dwarfism associated with a diminutive (short internodes) melon mutant line PNU-D1 (C.melo ssp. cantalupensis). PNU-D1 was crossed with inbred wild-type melon line PNU-WT1 (C.melo ssp. agrestis), and resultant F1 progeny were then self-pollinated to produce an F2 population that segregated as dwarf and vining plant types. Primary stem length of F2 progeny assessed under greenhouse conditions indicated that a single recessive gene, designated mdw1, controlled dwarfism in this population. To identify the chromosomal location associated with mdw1, an simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map was constructed using 94 F2 progeny. Using 76 SSR markers positioned on 15 linkage groups spanning 462.84 cM, the location of mdw1 was localized to Chromosome 7. Using the putative dwarfing-associated genes, fine genetic mapping of the mdw1 genomic region was facilitated with 1,194 F2 progeny that defined the genetic distance between mdw1 and cytokinin oxidase gene, a candidate gene for compact growth habit (cp) in cucumber, to be 1.7 cM. The candidate gene ERECTA (serin/threonine kinase) and UBI (ubiquitin) were also mapped to genomic regions flanking mdw1 at distances of 0.6 and 1.2 cM, respectively. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hwang J.H.,Pusan National University | Ahn S.G.,Pusan National University | Oh J.Y.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Choi Y.W.,Pusan National University | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The present work was conducted to characterize the functionality of 257 watermelon EST-SSR primer pairs for their PCR amplification and polymorphisms. EST-SSR markers were tested on DNA sample panels of six watermelon cultigens and two related species of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides and Citrullus colocynthis based on agarose gel electrophoresis and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Successful PCRs were shown for 240 primer pairs (79%), and 173 primer pairs (67%) were polymorphic in a watermelon DNA sample panel on agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, HRM analysis of 24 EST-SSR markers that were monomorphic on agarose gel separation identified an additional 19 polymorphic markers, indicating that HRM is an efficient tool for the rapid screening of sequence variations and allele discrimination. In the assessment of genetic relationships, six watermelon cultivars were closely related together (0.91-0.97) and demonstrated a narrow genetic base in the watermelon genetic pool. A high level of genetic dissimilarity (0.36-0.97) was shown between watermelon species and other related species. Marker transferability to melon species (Cucumis melo L.) was examined by cross-species PCR amplification and genetic diversity assessment in eight melon cultigens. Of the 257 EST-SSR primer pairs, 79 (32.9%) showed successful PCR amplification from melon DNA samples. A dendrogram of the genetic relationship based on 22 EST-SSR markers showed a clear classification of melon genotypes in accordance to fruit characteristics. The EST-SSR markers characterized in this study will contribute to diverse genomic investigations and breeding efforts, including comparative genome mapping, marker-assisted selection, and DNA fingerprinting for genetic diversity and cultivar identification in many cucurbit crops. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lee J.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Moon J.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Kim H.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Ha I.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Lee S.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services
HortScience | Year: 2011

The effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supply on the growth and nutrient uptake of intermediate-day onions (Allium cepa L.) was investigated in a double cropping systemof rice and onion inwhich rice strawhad been annually applied. The experiment consisted of three sets of treatments: N (0, 120, 240, 360 kg.ha-1N), P (0, 18, 35, 52 kg.ha-1), and K (0, 67, 133, 200 kg.ha-1) with the addition of 8.0 t.ha-1 of decomposed pigmanure. The rice straw was incorporatedwith tillage after harvest. Foliage weight of the onion plant was affected by N rate on 21 Apr. and on 23 May. Bulb weight was also influenced by N rate on 23May and at harvest. The only difference (P ≤0.05) in onion yield was observed between the zeroN rate and all the other N levels. Soil pHwas correlated with rate of N fertilization. Soil NO3-N for 240 and 360 kg.ha-1 N rates ranged from36.6 to 113.7 and 49.9 to 148.6, respectively,whichwas at least twice as high as that at 120 kg.ha-1 N rate. The highest fertilizer use efficiency of nitrogen was 36.0% at 120 kg.ha-1 followed by 240 kg.ha-1 at 28.0%and 360 kg.ha-1 at 20.6%. There was no clear effect of P or K rates on P or K concentration in the onion bulbs.K concentration and uptake in the onion leaf tissue increased with higher K rates. In conclusion, compost and rice straw provided sufficient P and K to grow onions without additional P and K fertilizer, and under these conditions, the fertilizer level of 120 kg.ha-1 N produced as much onion bulb yield as higher N levels.

Xia C.,Pusan National University | Lee J.-M.,Pusan National University | Li Y.,Pusan National University | Chung B.-K.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Chon T.-S.,Pusan National University
Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2 = 0.992) compared with Watershed (R2 = 0.895) and Otsu (R2 = 0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Lee H.-S.,Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Gillespie D.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2011

Development time, reproduction, survival and sex ratio were determined for the omnivorous mite Amblyseius swirskii at nine constant temperatures (13, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 32, 34 and 36°C) on pepper leaf disks with cattail, Typha latifolia, pollen for food. These data were used to derive life table parameters at these constant temperatures. No development was observed at 13°C. The lower development threshold, based on the fit to the linear portion of the development curve, was 11.3°C. The upper development threshold was 37.4 ± 1.12°C, and the optimum temperature was calculated to be 31.5°C. Average lifetime fecundity ranged from a low of 1.3 ± 0.24 eggs/female at 15°C to a high of 16.1 ± 0.34 eggs/female at 25°C, and rm was greatest at 32°C. Non-linear regression of the relationship between temperature and rm produced an estimate of 15.49 ± 0.905°C for the lower threshold for population growth and 36.99 ± 0.816°C for the upper threshold for population growth, and an optimum temperature of 30.1°C. These values suggest that A. swiskii populations should grow quickly in response to food availability (pollen or prey) between 20 and 32°C, but that, especially below 20°C, population growth could be slow and impacts on prey populations should be monitored carefully. © 2010 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

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